6.5. X-FEM on CB Shell Elements

The format of X-FEM is introduced into CB shell elements in this section. The CB shell element is convenient when considering the fiber elongation, including the thickness variation, and has very fine computation precision for thicker shells. It is also convenient to apply in thin shell problems (Belytschko et al., 2000). In addition, the deformation of CB shell elements is set up based on 3D solid elements, which can easily simulate the fractured model of the curved-surface shell, and the complicated situation of a crack that is not perpendicular to the mid-surface. The key point of this work is to construct the enriched shape function for 3D solid elements in order to capture the displacement fields precisely ...

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