300
DPM, 6
DPY, 6
edge routers, 9
fault tolerance, 7
five-nines, 6
MPLS networks, 256
MTBF/MTTR, 6
packet-switched networks, 11
redundancy, 7
reliability (versus), 6
service view, 11
software upgrades (in-service), 295–296
unavailability (versus), 6
B
backbone areas (OSPF), 73
backbone routers, 74
backup designated routers (BDRs), 76
backup paths, 7
backup tunnels, 55
BDRs (backup designated routers), 76
BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection), 288–290
access networks, 293
detecting IGP neighbor liveness, 290
FRR, 292–293
IP/MPLS networks, 294–295
LSPs, 291
PWs, 292
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), 8, 137
advertising labeled routes, 171
control processor cards, 138
control-plane components, 138
End-Of-RIB markers, 153–156
external reachability information, 109
FIBs, 138
forwarding-plane components, 138
FSM, 142
label distribution, 169
label-to-FEC bindings, 46
labeled routes (withdrawing), 171
LDP, 221
line cards, 138
messages, 141–142
MPLS
control planes, 168
graceful restart/NSF interoperability,
182–183
interrelationship, 168–169
NSF, 140, 166, 168
path attributes, 143, 146
AS_PATH, 146
LOCAL_PREF, 149
MP_REACH_NLRI, 169
MP_UNREACH_NLRI, 169
NEXT_HOP, 147
protocol extensions, 168
recursive paths, 31
restarts, 140
churns, 140
detrimental effects, 139
graceful restart, 151–161, 168
helper BGP speaker behavior, 155–156
mitigating detrimental effects, 150–151
MPLS, 166–167, 173–182
NSF interoperability, 159–161
restarting BGP speaker behavior, 154–155
route flaps, 138–140
RIBs, 138
routing, 140–144
fluctuations, 138
instability, 138
reflection, 149–150, 171
selection, 149
tables, 25
speakers, 137, 141
internal/external, 144
RIBs, 148
RRs, 150
states, 142–143
BGP with an MPLS graceful restart mechanism.
See BGP/MPLS networks
BGP/MPLS networks
advertising labeled BGP routes, 171
control planes, 168
protocol interrelationship, 168–169
restarts, 166–167
withdrawing labeled BGP routes, 171
BGP/MPLS restarts
graceful restart, 173–175, 179–180
helper LSR behavior, 178
network deployment, 181–182
availability

Get Fault-Tolerant IP and MPLS Networks now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.