9. Medical Applications 193
Coupling optics
Light guide
Reference detector
with object
Optics for illuminating and
detecting light from object
Figure 9.5 Configuration of a fiber optic sensor system.
microtube, tilted surface, moving mechanical part, etc.) [15]. Microbial
biosensors may also incorporate transducers which convert biochemical
signals into electrical or optical signals. Some sensors place immobilized
micro-organisms close to a thermistor which measures the metabolic heat
they produce; calorimetry may be applied to measure a large variety of
substances based on thermal reactions such as this. Some sensors work in
conjunction with microchips. For example, Oak Ridge National Labora-
tory has developed an infrared microspectrometer. It can be used for blood
chemistry analysis, gasoline octane analysis, environmental monitoring,
industrial process control, aircraft corrosion monitoring, and detection of
chemical warfare agents. It uses a light source to excite chemicals in
its environment, then channels the emitted light into an optical fiber for
external analysis. The measured wavelengths are fed into a microchip,
which identifies and determines the concentrations of chemicals in a sam-
ple. These miniaturized devices can be as accurate as standard laboratory
procedure, with a large number of additional applications [17]. Finally,
we should note that there are many other types of biosensors that use
microchips, or illuminate using fluorescence, which do not require optical
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[2] Winawer, S.J., Fletcher, R.H., Miller, L., Godlee, F., Stolar, M.H., Mulrow, C.D.,
et al. (1997) “Colorectal Cancer Screening: Clinical Guidelines and Rationale”. Gas-
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[3] Bongsoo, L. (2004) Fiberoptic Tutorial, Nanoptics Inc. May 6.
194 Fiber Optic Essentials
[4] Dennis C. Leiner (2002) Miniature Optics in the Hospital Operating Room, Light-
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[5] Johnson, B.A. (1999) “Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: Screening for Colorectal Cancer”,
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[6] Reinhard, J. (2000) Fundamentals of Fiber Optics (for Illumination), Volpi AG.
[7] Jerome D. Waye (2001) The Evolution of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy at The Mount
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[8] Nathan, R., Annetine C. Gelijns, and Holly, D. (1995) Sources of Medical Technol-
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[13] Website for Clark Equine Clinic, http://www.clarkequine.com/surgery.htm.
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ORNL Rev., 29 (3), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornl-
review/rev29_3/text/biosens.htm; also, see http://www.microfab.com/technology/

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