Triangular, rectangular and quadrilateral elements are most widely used for two-dimensional finite element modelling. Various properties of these elements and related interpolation functions are discussed in this section.
The triangular element was formulated by Turner et al. (1956). It is commonly used element shape for two-dimensional problems. Triangular elements can be used when the field variable is a function of two independent variables, namely x and y. Variation of field variable ɸ over the domain of an element can be written in polynomial form as
where α1, α2 and α3 are the coefficients to be evaluated.
Let the nodes ...