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First Mile Access Networks and Enabling Technologies by Tony Antony, Ashwin Gumaste

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Chapter 2. Passive Optical Networks in the First Mile

As Internet traffic doubles every six months or so, there is a tremendous surge in end-user bandwidth requirements. 14.4-kbps modems were replaced by higher-speed modems, which in turn were replaced by digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modems. However, even these advances could not alleviate the basic bottleneck in access networks. The bottleneck stems from two causes. First, at this time, there is ample capacity in the core and metro area due to the emergence of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) as a premier technology for high-speed transport; WMD maximizes the use of the near-infinite bandwidth offered by the optical fiber by sending multiple data streams on multiple wavelengths. ...

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