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Fluid Flow Measurement, 3rd Edition

Book Description

There is a tendency to make flow measurement a highly theoretical and technical subject but what most influences quality measurement is the practical application of meters, metering principles, and metering equipment and the use of quality equipment that can continue to function through the years with proper maintenance have the most influence in obtaining quality measurement. This guide provides a review of basic laws and principles, an overview of physical characteristics and behavior of gases and liquids, and a look at the dynamics of flow. The authors examine applications of specific meters, readout and related devices, and proving systems. Practical guidelines for the meter in use, condition of the fluid, details of the entire metering system, installation and operation, and the timing and quality of maintenance are also included.

This book is dedicated to condensing and sharing the authors' extensive experience in solving flow measurement problems with design engineers, operating personnel (from top supervisors to the newest testers), academically-based engineers, engineers of the manufacturers of flow meter equipment, worldwide practitioners, theorists, and people just getting into the business.

  • The authors' many years of experience are brought to bear in a thorough review of fluid flow measurement methods and applications
  • Avoids theory and focuses on presentation of practical data for the novice and veteran engineer
  • Useful for a wide range of engineers and technicians (as well as students) in a wide range of industries and applications

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Memorial
  7. 1. Introduction
    1. Chapter Overview
    2. Requisites of Flow Measurement
    3. Background of Flow Measurement
    4. History of Flow Measurement
    5. Definition of Terms
  8. 2. Basic Flow Measurement Laws
    1. Reynolds Number
    2. Gas Laws
    3. Expansion of Liquids
    4. Fundamental Flow Equation
    5. References
  9. 3. Types of Fluid Flow Measurement
    1. Custody Transfer
    2. Non-Custody Transfer Measurement
    3. Summary of Flow Measurement
    4. References
  10. 4. Basic Reference Standards
    1. American Gas Association (AGA)
    2. American Petroleum Institute (API)
    3. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
    4. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
    5. Gas Processors Association (GPA)
    6. Instrument Society of America (ISA)
    7. Addresses for other Sources of Measurement Standards
    8. Key Industry Web Links
  11. 5. From Theory to Practice
    1. Ideal Installations
    2. Non-Ideal Installations
    3. Fluid Characteristics Data
    4. References
  12. 6. Fluids
    1. Fluids—Liquids and Gases
    2. Fluid Characteristics
    3. Liquids
    4. References
  13. 7. Flow
    1. Required Characteristics
    2. Measurement Units
    3. Installation Requirements
    4. Flow Pattern
    5. References
  14. 8. Operations
    1. Operational Considerations
    2. Operational Influences on Gas Measurement
    3. Uncertainty
    4. Other Fluid Flow Considerations
  15. 9. Maintenance of Meter Equipment
    1. Gas Measurement Maintenance
    2. Effects of Liquids and Solids on Orifice Measurement
    3. Effects on other Meters
    4. General Maintenance of Liquid Meters
    5. Specific Liquid Maintenance Problems
  16. 10. Measurement and Meters
    1. Meter Characteristics
    2. Types of Meters
  17. 11. Differential (Head) Meters
    1. Orifice Meter
    2. Meter Design Changed
    3. Orifice Meter Description
    4. Sizing
    5. Equations
    6. Maintenance
    7. Flow Nozzles
    8. Venturi Meters
    9. Venturi Installation
    10. Other Head Meters
  18. 12. Linear and Special Meters
    1. Non-Intrusive Meters
    2. Intrusive Linear Meters
    3. Other and Special Purpose Meters
    4. References
  19. 13. Readouts and Related Devices
    1. Electronics
    2. Related Devices
    3. Crude Oil Sampling
    4. Natural Gas Sampling
    5. Calorimetry
    6. References
  20. 14. Proving Systems
    1. Liquid Provers
    2. Gas Provers
    3. Critical Flow Provers
    4. Central Test Facility
    5. References
  21. 15. “Lost and Unaccounted for” Fluids
    1. Introduction
    2. Liquid
    3. Gas
  22. 16. Measurement Data Analysis
    1. Introduction
    2. Corrected Volume
  23. 17. Auditing
    1. Introduction
    2. Gas Meters
    3. Liquid Meters
    4. Analysis Equipment
    5. Audit Principles
    6. Objective
    7. Procedures
    8. Evidence
    9. Definitive Testing
    10. Sources of Information
    11. Contract Review
    12. Field Measurement Equipment Review
    13. Data Review and Comparison
    14. Auditing Gas Measurement Systems
    15. Chart Review
    16. Auditing Liquid Measurement
    17. Finalizing the Audit
    18. Conclusion
  24. Index