W. Edwards Deming (1991) and Joseph Juran (1992) estimate that 80–94% of system problems are the responsibility of management. The forensic approach to system analysis is then quite clear—system effectiveness is greatly influenced by its management system. In French, management is called la direction, a term I like because it describes exactly what it is that management is supposed to do. One of the most important tasks of management is to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization’s processes. This is a comprehensive task and applies to all kinds of processes: education, government, production, service, commercial, military, and so on. The task includes the management framework to be used to establish and maintain policies, goals, resources, procedures, processes, and effective performance. In short, the task is to define and establish a management system.
3.1 Management Standards
3.1.1 Operations and Good Business Practices
Operations can be managed by “the seat of your pants” or they can be managed in some orderly fashion. The first kind of management is reactive and leads to endless fire drills ...