In this chapter we discuss three coordinate systems frequently encountered in electromagnetics: Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical. In each system we define the relevant operations and properties. We conclude by showing the transformations between the systems. These transformations are necessary when deriving the radiation from a Hertzian dipole, as shown in the EMC applications section at the end of this chapter.

Cartesian coordinate system is shown in Figure 2.1.

Unit vectors in this system, denoted * a_{x}*,

A point *P* can be represented as a triple of numbers

(2.1)

where *x*, *y*, and *z* are called the *coordinates* of *P*.

The *ranges* of the coordinate variables are

(2.2)

A *vector* **A** can be represented as a triple

(2.3)

where *A _{x}*,

A vector **A** can be decomposed into a sum of three vectors along ...

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