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Table of Contents
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CHAPTER 1. TECHNOLOGY AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY .................. 1
T
ECHNOLOGY AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY.......................................... 3
Who, When, and Where: Instructional Technologists .............................. 5
Why: Linking Means to Ends ................................................................... 7
What: Using Hard and Soft Technology .................................................. 8
How: Using Systematic and Systemic Approaches.................................. 9
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 13
CHAPTER 2. FOUNDATIONS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT .................. 15
F
OUNDATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT.................. 17
Edward Lee Thorndike (1874–1949) ....................................................... 18
Ralph Winfred Tyler (1902–1994)........................................................... 20
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904–1990).................................................... 24
Benjamin Samuel Bloom (1913–1999).................................................... 34
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 40
CHAPTER 3. THE SYSTEMATIC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN .................................. 43
S
YSTEMATIC PROCESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ......................................... 45
Robert Gagné’s Instructional Theories..................................................... 46
Robert Mager’s Method of Preparing Instructional Objectives................ 49
Dick and Carey’s Model of Instructional Design..................................... 54
John Keller’s ARCS Model...................................................................... 56
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 60
CHAPTER 4. EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS .......................................... 63
S
YSTEMATIC AND SYSTEMIC EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS.............. 65
Donald Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Model of Evaluation ........................... 66
Constructing “Smile” Sheets.................................................................... 69
Measurement Scales................................................................................. 71
Response Modes....................................................................................... 73
Conducting Four-Level Evaluations: An Example................................... 74
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 77
CHAPTER 5. SYSTEMS APPROACHES TO
INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT ....................................................... 79
I
NSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT....................................................... 81
The ADDIE Model................................................................................... 82
Training Needs Assessment ..................................................................... 85
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 88
CHAPTER 6. HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY ........................................... 91
E
VOLUTION OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY .................................... 93
Learning, Behavioral Change, and Performance...................................... 94
Human Performance Technology............................................................. 97
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 101
CHAPTER 7. ENGINEERING HUMAN COMPETENCE .............................................. 103
E
NGINEERING HUMAN PERFORMANCE............................................................. 105
Thomas Gilbert’s Leisurely Theorems..................................................... 106
Worthy Performance ................................................................................ 107
Potential for Improving Performance....................................................... 109
Behavior Engineering Model ................................................................... 111
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 117
CHAPTER 8. FRONT-END ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 119
F
RONT-END ANALYSIS..................................................................................... 121
Joe Harless’s Front-End Analysis ............................................................ 122
Smart Questions to Ask during Front-End Analysis ................................ 123
Front-End Analysis: A Case Study........................................................... 128
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 131
CHAPTER 9. SYSTEMIC ORGANIZATIONAL ELEMENTS....................................... 133
S
YSTEM THINKING ........................................................................................... 135
Roger Kaufman’s Organizational Elements Model.................................. 136
Different Levels of Needs ........................................................................ 138
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 143
CHAPTER 10. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR............................................................. 145
U
NDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR.............................................. 147
Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management .............................................. 148
The Hawthorne Studies ............................................................................ 151
Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory....................................................................... 153
Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory.................................. 155
Theory to Practice .................................................................................... 158
R
EFERENCES .................................................................................................... 160
CHAPTER 11. SUMMING UP .............................................................................................. 163
T
HE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IT AND HPT ..................................................... 165
The Historical and Theoretical Relationships .......................................... 166
Final Comments ....................................................................................... 169
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