Chapter 11. Summing Up ♦ 165
The Relationship between IT and HPT
Instructional technology is the systematic and systemic application of theories,
concepts, principles, and methods to learning situations in order to produce
improvement in human learning.
The means used in instructional technology is instruction, and the end result
is the desired level of improvement in human learning. To produce the
expected end result, the means (instruction) should be systematically an
systemically analyzed, designed, developed, implemented, and evaluated.
This is referred to as a technology of instruction.
Human performance technology is the systematic and systemic application o
theories, concepts, principles, and methods to work situations in order to
produce improvement in human learning and behavior, organizational success,
and/or organizational impact on its society.
The means used in human performance technology include instruction an
noninstructional interventions such as incentives, selection of workers,
and work-flow redesign. The end results are the desired levels of improve-
ment in human learning and behavior, organizational success, and/o
organizational impact on its society. To produce the expected end results, the
means should be selected by a careful in-depth analysis and designed,
developed, implemented, and evaluated in systematic and systemic manners.
This is a technology of performance improvement.
Instructional technologists and human performance technologists are profession-
als who employ the technologies of instruction and performance improvemen
to help achieve desired end results. To be qualified as instructional an
erformance technologists, they are expected to possess a competent level o
knowledge, skills, and attitudes that enable them to select and utilize various
technologies of instruction and performance improvement and to achieve desire
end results. Acquiring such competence starts with learning about the historical
and theoretical foundations of the fields and understanding the fundamental
principles that are applied to practice.
This chapter provides a summary of historical and theoretical relationships
etween the field of instructional technology and the field of human
performance technology. It also introduces a couple of organizations in the
fields of instructional technology and human performance technology, such
as the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) and the
International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI), and provides
suggestions to practitioners for building foundational knowledge.
166 ♦ Foundations of Instructional and Performance Technology
The Historical and Theoretical Relationships
The relationship between the field of instructional technology and the field o
human performance technology can be explained in several ways.
First, historically the field of instructional technology is a parent to the fiel
of human performance technology. Instructional technology as a profession
started to be recognized during and after World War II. The field o
instructional technology consumes foundational principles of human learning
and behavior developed by educational psychologists. Figure 35 illustrates
the influence of educational psychology on the development of the field o
instructional technology and shows the names of several main contributors.
Figure 35. The development of instructional technology as a profession.
Note: The contributors’ names are listed on the approximate locations of the timeline, and the arrows
indicate an example of their influence.
Human performance technology as a profession grew out of the instructional
technology field during the 1960s and 1970s, based on the conceptual
realization among leading practitioners that instruction alone would not be
a sufficient solution to all types of performance problems. Several mai
ractitioners in the field of instructional technology, such as Robert Mager an
Thomas Gilbert, also contributed to the development of the HPT field.
Industrial and organizational psychology and social psychology are not the
arents to the HPT field, but they provided the foundational ground work tha
supports the theory and practice of human performance technology. Thomas
Gilbert, known as the father of
erformance technology, was influenced b
ioneering scientists in other fields, such as Frederick Taylor, Kurt Lewin, an
B. F. Skinner. The HPT field became better known to the public during the
1980s and 1990s. Figure 36 illustrates the development of the field of huma
performance technology and lists the names of several main contributors.