All computers need software – apps or systems, or programs – in order to be of use. Some are hidden and work in the background (for example to print a document), others we call and use as we need them (e.g. payroll packages, games or social media apps). Some allow for tailoring by the user, or enable us to write our own ‘software’ in the form of databases or spreadsheets, for example.

Whatever the source and type, we place a lot of trust in their ability to do what we want – to provide reliable results for our lives and business activities. But how do we know we can rely on them? How do we know they are not doing anything devious or unreliable in addition? I’m not talking about a science ...

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