Fundamentals of Machining Processes, 3rd Edition

Book description

Written by an expert with over 40 years of experience in research and teaching machining and related topics, this new edition textbook presents the principles and theories of material removal and applications for conventional, nonconventional and hybrid machining processes. The new edition is ideal for undergraduate students in production, materials, industrial, mechatronics, marine, mechanical, and manufacturing engineering programs, and also useful for graduate programs related to higher-level machining topics, as well as professional engineers and technicians. All chapters are updated, with additional chapters covering new topics of composite machining, vibration assisted machining and mass finishing operations.

Features

  • Presents a wide spectrum of metal cutting, abrasive machining, nonconventional and hybrid machining processes
  • Analyzes the chip formation in machining by cutting and abrasion processes as well as the material removal mechanisms in the nonconventional and the hybrid processes
  • Explains the role of each process variables on its behavior and technological characteristics in terms of material removal, product accuracy and surface quality
  • Portrays the theoretical and empirical formula for removal rates and surface finish in different processes as well as very useful technical data that help in solving and analysis of day-to-day shop floor problems that face manufacturing engineers
  • Clarifies the machinability concept and introduces the general guidelines for machining process selection

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Foreword
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Abbreviations
  11. List of Symbols
  12. Greek Symbols
  13. Author
  14. Chapter 1 Machining Processes
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Historical Background
    3. 1.3 Classification of Machining Processes
      1. 1.3.1 Machining by Cutting
        1. 1.3.1.1 Form Cutting
        2. 1.3.1.2 Generation Cutting
        3. 1.3.1.3 Form and Generation Cutting
      2. 1.3.2 Machining by Abrasion
      3. 1.3.3 Machining by Erosion
        1. 1.3.3.1 Chemical and Electrochemical Erosion
        2. 1.3.3.2 Thermal Erosion
      4. 1.3.4 Hybrid Machining
      5. 1.3.5 Micromachining
      6. 1.3.6 Assisted Machining Processes
    4. 1.4 Machining Hard-to-Cut Materials
    5. 1.5 Variables of Machining Processes
    6. 1.6 Machining Process Selection
    7. 1.7 Review Questions
  15. Chapter 2 Cutting Tools
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Geometry of Single-Point Tools
      1. 2.2.1 American Standard Association (Tool-in-Hand) (Coordinate) System
      2. 2.2.2 Tool Angles in Orthogonal System of Planes
      3. 2.2.3 Relationship between the ASA and Orthogonal Systems
      4. 2.2.4 Effect of Tool Setting
      5. 2.2.5 Effect of Tool Feed Motion
      6. 2.2.6 Solved Example
    3. 2.3 Geometry of Multipoint Cutting Tools
      1. 2.3.1 Twist Drills
      2. 2.3.2 Reamers
      3. 2.3.3 BroachTools
      4. 2.3.4 End Mills
      5. 2.3.5 Plain Milling Cutters
    4. 2.4 Tool Materials
      1. 2.4.1 Requirements of Tool Materials
      2. 2.4.2 Classification of Tool Materials
        1. 2.4.2.1 Ferrous Tool Materials
        2. 2.4.2.2 Nonferrous Tool Materials
        3. 2.4.2.3 Nanocoated Tools
    5. 2.5 Problems
    6. 2.6 Review Questions
  16. Chapter 3 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Chip Formation
      1. 3.2.1 Discontinuous Chip
      2. 3.2.2 Continuous Chip
      3. 3.2.3 Continuous Chip with a Built-up Edge
    3. 3.3 Orthogonal Cutting
      1. 3.3.1 Force Diagram
      2. 3.3.2 Shear Angle
      3. 3.3.3 Shear Stress
      4. 3.3.4 Velocity Relations
      5. 3.3.5 Shear Strain
      6. 3.3.6 Rate of Strain
      7. 3.3.7 Theory of Ernst and Merchant
      8. 3.3.8 Theory of Lee and Shaffer
      9. 3.3.9 Experimental Verification
      10. 3.3.10 Energy Consideration
      11. 3.3.11 SolvedExample
    4. 3.4 Heat Generation in Metal Cutting
      1. 3.4.1 Cutting Tool Temperature
      2. 3.4.2 Temperature at Shear Plane
      3. 3.4.3 Factors Affecting the Tool Temperature
        1. 3.4.3.1 Machining Conditions
        2. 3.4.3.2 Cutting Tool
        3. 3.4.3.3 Cutting Fluids
        4. 3.4.3.4 Minimum Quantity Lubrication
      4. 3.4.4 SolvedExample
    5. 3.5 Problems
    6. 3.6 Review Questions
  17. Chapter 4 Tool Wear, Tool Life, and Economics of Metal Cutting
    1. 4.1 Tool Wear
      1. 4.1.1 Introduction
      2. 4.1.2 Forms of Tool Wear
        1. 4.1.2.1 Crater Wear
        2. 4.1.2.2 Flank Wear
      3. 4.1.3 Impact of Tool Wear
    2. 4.2 Tool Life
      1. 4.2.1 Formulation of Tool-life Equation
      2. 4.2.2 Criteria for Judging the End of Tool Life
      3. 4.2.3 Factors Affecting Tool Life
        1. 4.2.3.1 Cutting Conditions
        2. 4.2.3.2 Tool Geometry
        3. 4.2.3.3 Built-Up Edge Formation
        4. 4.2.3.4 Tool Material
        5. 4.2.3.5 Workpiece Material
        6. 4.2.3.6 Rigidity of the Machine Tool
        7. 4.2.3.7 Coolant
      4. 4.2.4 Solved Example
    3. 4.3 Economics of Metal Cutting
      1. 4.3.1 Cutting Speed for Minimum Cost
      2. 4.3.2 Cutting Speed for Minimum Time
      3. 4.3.3 Cutting Speed for Maximum Profit Rate
      4. 4.3.4 Solved Example
    4. 4.4 Problems
    5. 4.5 Review Questions
  18. Chapter 5 Cutting Cylindrical Surfaces
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Turning
      1. 5.2.1 Cutting Tools
      2. 5.2.2 Cutting Speed, Feed, and Machining Time
      3. 5.2.3 Elements of Undeformed Chip
      4. 5.2.4 Cutting Forces, Power, and Removal Rate
      5. 5.2.5 Factors Affecting the Turning Forces
        1. 5.2.5.1 Factors Related to Tool
        2. 5.2.5.2 Factors Related to Workpiece
        3. 5.2.5.3 Factors Related to Cutting Conditions
      6. 5.2.6 Surface Finish
      7. 5.2.7 Assigning the Cutting Variables
      8. 5.2.8 Solved Example
    3. 5.3 Drilling
      1. 5.3.1 Drill Tool
      2. 5.3.2 Elements of Undeformed Chip
      3. 5.3.3 Cutting Forces, Torque, and Power
      4. 5.3.4 Factors Affecting the Drilling Forces
        1. 5.3.4.1 Factors Related to the Workpiece
        2. 5.3.4.2 Factors Related to the Drill Geometry
        3. 5.3.4.3 Factors Related to Drilling Conditions
      5. 5.3.5 Drilling Time
      6. 5.3.6 Dimensional Accuracy
      7. 5.3.7 Surface Quality
      8. 5.3.8 Selection of Drilling Conditions
      9. 5.3.9 Solved Example
    4. 5.4 Reaming
      1. 5.4.1 Finish Reamers
      2. 5.4.2 Elements of Undeformed Chip
      3. 5.4.3 Forces, Torque, and Power in Reaming
      4. 5.4.4 Reaming Time
      5. 5.4.5 Selection of the Reamer Diameter
      6. 5.4.6 Selection of Reaming Conditions
      7. 5.4.7 Solved Example
    5. 5.5 Problems
      1. 5.5.1 Turning
      2. 5.5.2 Drilling
    6. 5.6 Review Questions
  19. Chapter 6 Cutting Flat Surfaces
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Shaping and Planing
      1. 6.2.1 Shaper and Planer Tools
      2. 6.2.2 Elements of Undeformed Chip
      3. 6.2.3 Cutting Forces, Power, and Removal Rate
      4. 6.2.4 Shaping Time
      5. 6.2.5 Selection of Cutting Variables
      6. 6.2.6 Solved Example
    3. 6.3 Milling
      1. 6.3.1 Horizontal (Plain) Milling
        1. 6.3.1.1 Plain-Milling Cutters
        2. 6.3.1.2 Cutting Speed of Tool and Workpiece Feed
        3. 6.3.1.3 Elements of Undeformed Chip
        4. 6.3.1.4 Forces and Power in Milling
        5. 6.3.1.5 Surface Roughness in Plain Milling
        6. 6.3.1.6 Milling Time
        7. 6.3.1.7 Factors Affecting the Cutting Forces
        8. 6.3.1.8 Solved Example
      2. 6.3.2 Face Milling
        1. 6.3.2.1 Face-Milling Cutters
        2. 6.3.2.2 Elements of Undeformed Chip
        3. 6.3.2.3 Surface Roughness
        4. 6.3.2.4 Machining Time
        5. 6.3.2.5 Solved Example
      3. 6.3.3 Selection of Milling Conditions
    4. 6.4 Broaching
      1. 6.4.1 Broach Tool
      2. 6.4.2 Chip Formation in Broaching
      3. 6.4.3 Broaching Force and Power
      4. 6.4.4 Broaching Time
      5. 6.4.5 Accuracy and Surface Finish
      6. 6.4.6 Broach Devsign
      7. 6.4.7 Solved Example
    5. 6.5 Problems
      1. 6.5.1 Shaping
      2. 6.5.2 Horizontal Milling
      3. 6.5.3 Vertical Milling
      4. 6.5.4 Broaching
    6. 6.6 Review Questions
  20. Chapter 7 High-Speed Machining
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 History of HSM
    3. 7.3 Chip Formation in HSM
    4. 7.4 Characteristics of HSM
    5. 7.5 Machining-Related Measurements
      1. 7.5.1 Force Measurement
        1. 7.5.1.1 Dynamometers Based on Displacement Measurement
        2. 7.5.1.2 Dynamometers Based on Strain Measurement
        3. 7.5.1.3 Piezoelectric (Quartz) Dynamometers
      2. 7.5.2 Vibration Measurements
      3. 7.5.3 Temperature Measurements
        1. 7.5.3.1 Thermocouple Techniques
        2. 7.5.3.2 Infrared Techniques
      4. 7.5.4 Tool Wear Measurements
    6. 7.6 Applications of HSM
    7. 7.7 Advantages of HSM
    8. 7.8 Limitations of HSM
    9. 7.9 Review Questions
  21. Chapter 8 Machining by Abrasion
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Grinding
      1. 8.2.1 Grinding Wheels
        1. 8.2.1.1 Abrasive Materials
        2. 8.2.1.2 Grain Size
        3. 8.2.1.3 Wheel Bond
        4. 8.2.1.4 Wheel Grade
        5. 8.2.1.5 Wheel Structure
        6. 8.2.1.6 Grinding-Wheel Designation
        7. 8.2.1.7 Wheel Shapes
        8. 8.2.1.8 Selection of Grinding Wheels
        9. 8.2.1.9 Wheel Balancing
        10. 8.2.1.10 Truing and Dressing
        11. 8.2.1.11 Temperature in Grinding
      2. 8.2.2 Wheel Wear
      3. 8.2.3 Economics of Grinding
      4. 8.2.4 Surface Roughness
    3. 8.3 Surface Grinding
      1. 8.3.1 Elements of Undeformed Chip
      2. 8.3.2 Grinding Forces, Power, and Removal Rate
      3. 8.3.3 Factors Affecting the Grinding Forces
      4. 8.3.4 Grinding Time
      5. 8.3.5 Solved Example
      6. 8.3.6 Surface Grinding Operations
        1. 8.3.6.1 Plain (Periphery) and Face Grinding with Reciprocating Feed
        2. 8.3.6.2 Surface Grinding with a Rotating Table
        3. 8.3.6.3 Creep-Feed Grinding
    4. 8.4 CylindricalGrinding
      1. 8.4.1 Elements of Undeformed Chip
      2. 8.4.2 Forces, Power, and Removal Rate
      3. 8.4.3 Factors Affecting the Grinding Forces
      4. 8.4.4 Factors Affecting Surface Roughness
      5. 8.4.5 Solved Example
      6. 8.4.6 Cylindrical Grinding Operations
        1. 8.4.6.1 External Cylindrical Grinding
        2. 8.4.6.2 External Centerless Grinding
        3. 8.4.6.3 Internal Cylindrical Grinding
        4. 8.4.6.4 Internal Centerless Grinding
    5. 8.5 Wheel Speed and Workpiece Feed
    6. 8.6 Problems
    7. 8.7 Review Questions
  22. Chapter 9 Abrasive Finishing Processes
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Honing
      1. 9.2.1 Honing Kinematics
      2. 9.2.2 Process Components
      3. 9.2.3 Process Description
      4. 9.2.4 Process Characteristics
    3. 9.3 Lapping
      1. 9.3.1 Process Components
      2. 9.3.2 Mechanics of Lapping
      3. 9.3.3 Process Characteristics
      4. 9.3.4 Lapping Operations
    4. 9.4 Superfinishing
      1. 9.4.1 Kinematics of Superfinishing
      2. 9.4.2 Process Characteristics
    5. 9.5 Polishing
    6. 9.6 Buffing
    7. 9.7 Review Questions
  23. Chapter 10 Modern Abrasive Processes
    1. 10.1 Ultrasonic Machining
      1. 10.1.1 Mechanism of Material Removal
      2. 10.1.2 Solved Example
      3. 10.1.3 Factors Affecting Material Removal Rate
      4. 10.1.4 Dimensional Accuracy
      5. 10.1.5 Surface Quality
      6. 10.1.6 Applications
    2. 10.2 Abrasive Jet Machining
      1. 10.2.1 Material Removal Rate
      2. 10.2.2 Applications
    3. 10.3 Abrasive Water Jet Machining
      1. 10.3.1 Process Characteristics
    4. 10.4 Abrasive Flow Machining
    5. 10.5 Problems
    6. 10.6 Review Questions
  24. Chapter 11 Magnetic Field-Assisted Finishing Processes
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Magnetic Abrasive Finishing
      1. 11.2.1 Process Description
      2. 11.2.2 Process Characteristics
        1. 11.2.2.1 Material Removal Rate and Surface Finish
        2. 11.2.2.2 Applications
    3. 11.3 Magnetic Float Polishing
    4. 11.4 Magnetorheological Finishing
    5. 11.5 Magnetorheological Abrasive Flow Finishing
    6. 11.6 Review Questions
  25. Chapter 12 Mass Finishing Operations
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Process Components
      1. 12.2.1 Media
      2. 12.2.2 Compounds
    3. 12.3 Mechanical Mass Finishing
      1. 12.3.1 Barrel Finishing
      2. 12.3.2 Vibratory Finishing
      3. 12.3.3 Centrifugal Barrel Finishing
      4. 12.3.4 Centrifugal Disc Finishing
      5. 12.3.5 Spindle Finishing
    4. 12.4 Electrochemical Mass Finishing
      1. 12.4.1 Machining Principles
      2. 12.4.2 Factors Affecting Material Removal
      3. 12.4.3 Applications
    5. 12.5 Electropolishing
    6. 12.6 Review Questions
  26. Chapter 13 Machining by Electrochemical Erosion
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Principles of ECM
    3. 13.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of ECM
      1. 13.3.1 Advantages
      2. 13.3.2 Disadvantages
    4. 13.4 Material Removal Rate by ECM
    5. 13.5 Solved Example
    6. 13.6 ECM Equipment
    7. 13.7 Process Characteristics
    8. 13.8 Economics of ECM
    9. 13.9 ECM Applications
    10. 13.10 Chemical Machining
    11. 13.11 SolvedExample
    12. 13.12 Problems
    13. 13.13 Review Questions
  27. Chapter 14 Machining by Thermal Erosion
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Electrodischarge Machining
      1. 14.2.1 Mechanism of Material Removal
      2. 14.2.2 EDM Machine
      3. 14.2.3 Material Removal Rates
      4. 14.2.4 Surface Integrity
      5. 14.2.5 Heat-Affected Zone
      6. 14.2.6 Applications
    3. 14.3 Laser Beam Machining
      1. 14.3.1 Material Removal Mechanism
      2. 14.3.2 Solved Example
      3. 14.3.3 Applications
    4. 14.4 Electron Beam Machining
      1. 14.4.1 Material Removal Process
      2. 14.4.2 Solved Example
      3. 14.4.3 Applications
    5. 14.5 Ion Beam Machining
    6. 14.6 Plasma Beam Machining
      1. 14.6.1 Material Removal Rate
      2. 14.6.2 Applications
    7. 14.7 Problems
    8. 14.8 Review Questions
  28. Chapter 15 Hybrid Machining Processes
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Hybrid Electrochemical Processes
      1. 15.2.1 Electrochemical Grinding
      2. 15.2.2 Electrochemical Honing
      3. 15.2.3 Electrochemical Superfinishing
      4. 15.2.4 Electrochemical Buffing
      5. 15.2.5 Ultrasonic-Assisted Electrochemical Machining
    3. 15.3 Hybrid Thermal Proces ses
      1. 15.3.1 Electroerosion Dissolution Machining
      2. 15.3.2 Abrasive Electrodischarge Grinding
      3. 15.3.3 Abrasive Electrodischarge Machining
      4. 15.3.4 EDM with Ultrasonic Assistance
      5. 15.3.5 Electrochemical Discharge Grinding
      6. 15.3.6 Brush Erosion Dissolution Mechanical Machining
    4. 15.4 Problems
    5. 15.5 Review Questions
  29. Chapter 16 Micromachining
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Conventional Micromachining
      1. 16.2.1 Diamond Microturning
      2. 16.2.2 Microdrilling
    3. 16.3 Abrasive Micromachining
      1. 16.3.1 Microgrinding
      2. 16.3.2 Magnetic Abrasive Microfinishing
      3. 16.3.3 Microsuperfinishing
      4. 16.3.4 Microlapping
      5. 16.3.5 Micro-Ultrasonic Machining
    4. 16.4 Nonconventional Micromachining
      1. 16.4.1 Micromachining by Thermal Erosion
        1. 16.4.1.1 Micro-EDM
        2. 16.4.1.2 Laser Micromachining
      2. 16.4.2 Micromachining by Electrochemical Erosion
      3. 16.4.3 Hybrid Micromachining Processes
        1. 16.4.3.1 Chemical-Assisted Mechanical Polishing
        2. 16.4.3.2 Mechanochemical Polishing
        3. 16.4.3.3 Electrolytic In-process Dressing of Grinding Wheels
    5. 16.5 Review Questions
  30. Chapter 17 Machining Composite Materials
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Reinforcing Materials
    3. 17.3 Matrix
    4. 17.4 Machining of Composites
    5. 17.5 Chip Formation
      1. 17.5.1 Cutting Particulate-Reinforced Composites
      2. 17.5.2 Cutting Unidirectional Composites
        1. 17.5.2.1 Sharp-Edged Tools
        2. 17.5.2.2 Nose Radiused Tools
      3. 17.5.3 Cutting Multidirectional Composites
    6. 17.6 Traditional Machining Operations
      1. 17.6.1 Turning
      2. 17.6.2 Drilling
      3. 17.6.3 Milling and Trimming
      4. 17.6.4 Grinding
    7. 17.7 Nontraditional Machining
      1. 17.7.1 Abrasive Water Jet Machining
      2. 17.7.2 Laser Beam Machining
      3. 17.7.3 Electrodischarge Machining
    8. 17.8 Machining Defects
    9. 17.9 Problems
    10. 17.10 Review Questions
  31. Chapter 18 Vibration-Assisted Machining
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Kinematics of VAM
      1. 18.2.1 1-DVAM
      2. 18.2.2 2-D VAM
    3. 18.3 Advantages of VAM
    4. 18.4 Vibration-Assisted Conventional Machining
      1. 18.4.1 Turning
      2. 18.4.2 Drilling
      3. 18.4.3 Milling
      4. 18.4.4 Grinding
    5. 18.5 Nonconventional Vibration-Assisted Machining
      1. 18.5.1 Electrodischarge Machining
      2. 18.5.2 Electrochemical Machining
      3. 18.5.3 Abrasive Waterjet Machining
    6. 18.6 Review Questions
  32. Chapter 19 Machinability
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Conventional Machining
      1. 19.2.1 Judging Machinability
      2. 19.2.2 Relative Machinability
      3. 19.2.3 Factors Affecting Machinability
        1. 19.2.3.1 Condition of Work Material
        2. 19.2.3.2 Physical Properties of Work Materials
        3. 19.2.3.3 Machining Parameters
      4. 19.2.4 Machinability of Engineering Materials
        1. 19.2.4.1 Machinability of Steels and Alloy Steels
        2. 19.2.4.2 Machinability of Cast Irons
        3. 19.2.4.3 Machinability of Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
        4. 19.2.4.4 Machinability of Nonmetallic Materials
    3. 19.3 Nonconventional Machining
    4. 19.4 Review Questions
  33. Chapter 20 Machining Process Selection
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Factors Affecting Process Selection
      1. 20.2.1 Part Features
      2. 20.2.2 Part Material
      3. 20.2.3 Dimensional and Geometric Features
      4. 20.2.4 Surface Texture
      5. 20.2.5 Surface Integrity
      6. 20.2.6 Production Quantity
      7. 20.2.7 Production Cost
      8. 20.2.8 Environmental Impacts
      9. 20.2.9 Process and Machine Capability
    3. 20.3 Review Questions
  34. References
  35. Index

Product information

  • Title: Fundamentals of Machining Processes, 3rd Edition
  • Author(s): Hassan El-Hofy
  • Release date: October 2018
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9780429811739