Chapter 22

The Fully Integrated Grid: Wholesale and Retail, Transmission and Distribution

Susan Covino
Andrew Levitt
Paul Sotkiewicz    PJM Interconnection, LLC, Audubon, PA, United States of America


Increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) into the grid will impact both distribution and wholesale market operations and planning. While new technologies enable two-way communication and control from the central station generator down to the customers’ appliances, price formation in wholesale and retail markets remains to be integrated. Information sharing and coordination of DER by transmission- and distribution system operators (TSOs and DSOs, respectively) is required to realize efficiency gains from coordination and ...

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