SI3N4/SiO2 Planar Photonic Structures Fabricated by Focused Ion Beam
Device Research Laboratory, Applied Physics Dept. Gleb Wataghin, Univ. of Campinas–UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
Center for Semiconductor Components, University of Campinas–UNICAMP, 13083-870 Campinas, SP, Brazil
Micro-optical resonators are essential components in optical integrated systems, as they facilitate the selective capture, release, and storage of photons as well as interaction with matter and other photons. As an example, microdisks1 and micro-rings2,3 are elements that provide extremely long photon lifetimes that can be used for spectral filtering and for highly efficient nonlinear photon interactions.4,5 The small volumes and the high photonic lifetime in micro-resonators are very important, for example, to enable four-wave mixing (FWM) with a single pumping frequency.6
However, coupling light to and from the micro-resonator is still achieved via hybrid integration, typically using tapered silica fibers.7 In this chapter, we present a new technique for the fabrication of structures with monolithically integrated resonators and planar tapered waveguides, all based on SiNx/SiO2 layers deposited on silicon.
We use an approach that combines nanofabrication techniques based on focused ion beam (FIB) milling and smoothing8 and conventional microfabrication techniques. We have fabricated ...