This appendix provides a quick review of intermediate C++ concepts used throughout the book. The concepts roughly correspond to typical topics in Computer Science 1 and 2 courses. If you are rusty with C++, you should spend extra time reviewing this material.
Although references, pointers, and arrays might seem like separate concepts, they are closely related. Furthermore, because pointers are often stumbling points for C++ programmers, it’s worthwhile to spend some time reviewing their intricacies.
A reference is a variable that refers to another variable that already exists. To denote a variable as a reference, add an
& immediately after the type. For example, ...