Appendix A

Intermediate C++ Review

This appendix provides a quick review of intermediate C++ concepts used throughout the book. The concepts roughly correspond to typical topics in Computer Science 1 and 2 courses. If you are rusty with C++, you should spend extra time reviewing this material.

References, Pointers, and Arrays

Although references, pointers, and arrays might seem like separate concepts, they are closely related. Furthermore, because pointers are often stumbling points for C++ programmers, it’s worthwhile to spend some time reviewing their intricacies.


A reference is a variable that refers to another variable that already exists. To denote a variable as a reference, add an & immediately after the type. For example, ...

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