9. Functional genomics: personalized medicine and therapeutics

[K]nowledge acquisition and dissemination are increasingly viewed as a collective effort in which disciplinary boundaries are dissolved and ideas and data are more freely and openly exchanged.

—L. Hood, L. Rowan, D. J. Galas, J. D. Aitchison (2008)

Discoveries in genomics and genetics must be systematically translated to improve patient care. Ginsburg and Willard (2009) defined genomic medicine as “the use of information of genomes and their derivatives, RNA, protein, and metabolites, to guide medical decision-making.” They defined personalized medicine as “healthcare that is informed by each person’s unique clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information.”

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