4

Errors in Transmission

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
  • Overview of Chromosome Morphology
  • Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities
OVERVIEW OF CHROMOSOME MORPHOLOGY

Anatomically, each functional chromosome has a centromere, where spindle fibers attach, and two telomeres that stabilize the chromosome. Chromosomes are classified into four basic types (based on the position of the centromere):

  1. Metacentric: The centromere is located approximately in the middle, and so the chromosome has two arms of equal length.
  2. Sub metacentric: The centromere is displaced toward one end, creating a long arm and a short arm.
  3. Acrocentric: The centromere is near one end, producing a long arm and a knob, or satellite, at the other.
  4. Telocentric: ...

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