Neural Tube Defects


  • Screening of NTD with Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein
  • Ultrasound Evaluation of NTDs
  • Prevention of NTD
  • Genetic Susceptibility for NTD and Folic Acid Intake
  • Fortification During Pregnancy

Neural tube defect (NTD) is the second most prevalent prenatal anomaly only less frequent than cardiac malformations. Worldwide, there are 400,000 such defects.


Neural tube defects Congenital defect caused by incomplete closure of the neural tube during early stages of embryonic development.

NTDs can be separated into two main categories:

  1. Abnormalities of the skull and brain, including anencephaly, acrania, or encephalocele
  2. Malformations of the spine, including meningocele, meningomyelocele, or spina bifida ...

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