3Role of National Culture and Subcultures


cosmopolitan publics/society; traditions/holidays; organizational culture; power distance; individualism/collectivism; masculinity/femininity; uncertainty avoidance; short/long‐term orientation; indulgence/restraint; polychronic/monochronic

Central Themes

  • The environment for organizations can differ across countries in a variety of dimensions, including regulations, institutions, labor force characteristics, and culture.
  • Dimensions such as power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, short/long‐term orientation, indulgence/restraint, polychromic and monochromic define a culture.
  • A multiplicity of subcultures and languages may coexist in the same nation.
  • Colors and graphic design vary across nations and regions.
  • Global public relations professionals must consider the nuances of a culture to develop strategies and tactics, including messages that capture the attention of and resonate with target host publics.


Culture is a complex and multidimensional concept, which makes it hard for organizations to comprehend and control. With national, regional, local, and societal cultures so unique to each place, it becomes challenging for organizations to navigate and communicate with such diverse audiences. Let's look at Grupo Bimbo, a Mexican bakery‐product manufacturing giant (8000 plus products under some 100 umbrella brands) that has actively engaged home stakeholders ...

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