This appendix covers some concepts and analytical tools, along with suggested readings, for those who need a review of undergraduate transportation management and industrial organization. Key terms used in contracting are discussed in order to establish lines of responsibility. The five modes of transport are outlined in terms of their cost structure. Efficiency and effectiveness are compared and contrasted. Finally, the meaning of free trade and the extent to which other barriers remain are discussed. All of these terms and concepts are examined in the context of supply chain security in order to clarify points made in previous chapters.