Chapter 1Introduction

Over the last decade, the development and application of GNSS (global navigation satellite system) has been unabatedly progressing. Not only is the modernization of the U.S. GPS (global positioning system) in full swing, the Russian GLONASS (Global'naya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema) system has undergone a remarkable recovery since its decline in the late 1990s to be now fully operational. The first static and kinematic surveys with the Chinese Beidou system are being published, and the signals of the European Galileo system are being evaluated. While many individuals might look back on the exciting times they were fortunate to experience since the launch of the first GPS satellite in 1978, there are many more enthusiastic individuals gearing up for an even more exciting future of surveying and navigation with GNSS. Yes, it seems like a long time has passed since sunset admirers on top of Mount Wachusett, seeing a GPS antenna with cables connected to a big “machine” in a station wagon were wondering if it would “take off,” or if you were “on their side,” or regular folks in a parking lot approaching a car with a “GPS” license plate were wondering if you had “such a thing.”

Much has been published on the subject of GNSS, primarily about GPS because of its long history. Admirably efficient search engines uncover enormous amounts of resources on the Internet to make an author wonder what else is there to write about. We took the opportunity of updating ...

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