Introduction—Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau: Industrialization Shapes Visual Culture

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Jules Cheret, Casino de Paris poster, 1891

As the 20th century approached, the world had already experienced huge changes. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the mid-1700s in England and continued through the 1800s in Europe and the United States, created new ways of doing almost everything—manufacturing, traveling, and communicating. The rise of the machine enabled mass production, making goods more accessible and inexpensive. It also created jobs in growing, centralized urban areas. People left farms in the country for work in the city.

Population shifts, ...

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