Chapter 13Life-Cycle Concepts, Product Stewardship and Green Engineering
13.1 Introduction to Product Life Cycle Concepts
Products, services, and processes all have a life cycle. For products, the life cycle begins when raw materials are extracted or harvested. Raw materials then go through a number of manufacturing steps until the product is delivered to a customer. The product is used, then disposed of or recycled. These product life-cycle stages are illustrated in Figure 13.1-1, along the horizontal axis. As shown in the figure, energy is consumed and wastes and emissions are generated in all of these life cycle stages.
Processes also have a life cycle. The life cycle begins with planning, research ...