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Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes by David R. Shonnard, David T. Allen

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Chapter 13Life-Cycle Concepts, Product Stewardship and Green Engineering

byKirsten Sinclair Rosselot and David T. Allen

13.1 Introduction to Product Life Cycle Concepts

Products, services, and processes all have a life cycle. For products, the life cycle begins when raw materials are extracted or harvested. Raw materials then go through a number of manufacturing steps until the product is delivered to a customer. The product is used, then disposed of or recycled. These product life-cycle stages are illustrated in Figure 13.1-1, along the horizontal axis. As shown in the figure, energy is consumed and wastes and emissions are generated in all of these life cycle stages.

Processes also have a life cycle. The life cycle begins with planning, research ...

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