Industrial control systems are large, complex systems of interconnected devices like HMIs, PLCs, sensors, actuators, and other devices that communicate with each other using agreed-upon protocols. The driver behind all of this interaction is software (no pun intended). Software is what can change a PLC from an oil well pump controller to a water purification controller to an expensive paperweight. Software is behind almost every part of ICS. This pervasive presence is evidenced by the portion of all ICS security bugs attributable to software.

In May 2011, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) published a report titled Common Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Industrial Control Systems ( ...

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