Chapter 4

Surface Phenomena: Rinsing and Drying

Karen A. Reinhardt1, Richard F. Reidy2, and John A. Marsella3

1Cameo Consulting, San Jose, California, USA

2University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA

3Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA


Rinsing and drying processes are critical to control after the cleaning and etching steps. Rinsing and drying should not adversely affect the cleaned wafer surface. The rinse must completely wet the wafer, and then be efficiently removed from both planar surfaces and features. The chemicals and the cleaning byproducts must be removed leaving no residual layer of water on the surface. Watermarks must be prevented from forming on hydrophobic surfaces by controlling the drying process and minimizing the amount of dissolved silica in the water. Additionally, contaminants must not redeposit on the wafer surface during these processes. This chapter reviews the physics and chemistry of rinsing and drying by discussing Young’s wetting equation, surface tension and energy, stiction, and electrostatic charging.

Keywords: rinsing, drying, surface charge, surface energy, surface tension, watermarks, water droplet, silica solubility, silicic acid, quick dump rinser, overflow rinser, cascade rinser, spin rinse dryer, Marangoni dryer, stiction

4.1 The Surface Phenomena of Rinsing and Drying

The ability to rinse and dry a surface after being exposed to cleaning and etching chemical is critical for the surface conditioning ...

Get Handbook of Cleaning for Semiconductor Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.