Section 39


The subject area Refrigeration deals with advances in the use of energy for the purpose of lowering the temperature of objects to below the freezing point of water, or at least significantly below the ambient temperature. The chief practical application of this has historically been to preserve food. A closely related section is HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), which precedes this section.

Until fairly recent times refrigeration had to rely upon natural ice or snow, typically blocks of ice cut from ponds or other bodies of water. William Cullen of Scotland demonstrated an artificial refrigeration system in the mid-1700s that was able to function successfully, but it did not lead to a device with practical ...

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