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Handbook of Machine and Computer Vision, 2nd Edition

Book Description

The second edition of this accepted reference work has been updated to reflect the rapid developments in the field and now covers both 2D and 3D imaging.
Written by expert practitioners from leading companies operating in machine vision, this one-stop handbook guides readers through all aspects of image acquisition and image processing, including optics, electronics and software. The authors approach the subject in terms of industrial applications, elucidating such topics as illumination and camera calibration. Initial chapters concentrate on the latest hardware aspects, ranging from lenses and camera systems to camera-computer interfaces, with the software necessary discussed to an equal depth in later sections. These include digital image basics as well as image analysis and image processing. The book concludes with extended coverage of industrial applications in optics and electronics, backed by case studies and design strategies for the conception of complete machine vision systems. As a result, readers are not only able to understand the latest systems, but also to plan and evaluate this technology.
With more than 500 images and tables to illustrate relevant principles and steps.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface Second Edition
  5. Preface First Edition
    1. Why a Further Book on Machine Vision?
  6. List of Contributors
  7. Chapter 1: Processing of Information in the Human Visual System
    1. 1.1 Preface
    2. 1.2 Design and Structure of the Eye
    3. 1.3 Optical Aberrations and Consequences for Visual Performance
    4. 1.4 Chromatic Aberration
    5. 1.5 Neural Adaptation to Monochromatic Aberrations
    6. 1.6 Optimizing Retinal Processing with Limited Cell Numbers, Space, and Energy
    7. 1.7 Adaptation to Different Light Levels
    8. 1.8 Rod and Cone Responses
    9. 1.9 Spiking and Coding
    10. 1.10 Temporal and Spatial Performance
    11. 1.11 ON/OFF Structure, Division of the Whole Illuminance Amplitude
    12. 1.12 Consequences of the Rod and Cone Diversity on Retinal Wiring
    13. 1.13 Motion Sensitivity in the Retina
    14. 1.14 Visual Information Processing in Higher Centers
    15. 1.15 Effects of Attention
    16. 1.16 Color Vision, Color Constancy, and Color Contrast
    17. 1.17 Depth Perception
    18. 1.18 Adaptation in the Visual System to Color, Spatial, and Temporal Contrast
    19. 1.19 Conclusions
    20. Acknowledgements
    21. References
  8. Chapter 2: Introduction to Building a Machine Vision Inspection
    1. 2.1 Preface
    2. 2.2 Specifying a Machine Vision System
    3. 2.3 Designing a Machine Vision System
    4. 2.4 Costs
    5. 2.5 Words on Project Realization
    6. 2.6 Examples
  9. Chapter 3: Lighting in Machine Vision
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Demands on Machine Vision lighting
    3. 3.3 Light used in Machine Vision
    4. 3.4 Interaction of Test Object and Light
    5. 3.5 Basic Rules and Laws of Light Distribution
    6. 3.6 Light Filters
    7. 3.7 Lighting Techniques and Their Use
    8. 3.8 Lighting Control
    9. 3.9 Lighting Perspectives for the Future
    10. References
  10. Chapter 4: Optical Systems in Machine Vision
    1. 4.1 A Look at the Foundations of Geometrical Optics
    2. 4.2 Gaussian Optics
    3. 4.4 Information Theoretical Treatment of Image Transfer and Storage
    4. 4.5 Criteria for Image Quality
    5. 4.6 Practical Aspects: How to Specify Optics According to the Application Requirements?
    6. References
  11. Chapter 5: Camera Calibration
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Terminology
    3. 5.3 Physical Effects
    4. 5.4 Mathematical Calibration Model
    5. 5.5 Calibration and Orientation Techniques
    6. 5.6 Verification of Calibration Results
    7. 5.7 Applications
    8. References
  12. Chapter 6: Camera Systems in Machine Vision
    1. 6.1 Camera Technology
    2. 6.2 Sensor Technologies
    3. 6.3 Block Diagrams and Their Description
    4. 6.4 mvBlueCOUGAR-X Line of Cameras
    5. 6.5 Configuration of a GigE Vision Camera
    6. 6.6 Qualifying Cameras and Noise Measurement (Dr. Gert Ferrano MV)
    7. 6.7 Camera Noise (by Henning Haider AVT, Updated by Author)
    8. 6.8 Useful Links and Literature
    9. 6.9 Digital Interfaces
  13. Chapter 7: Smart Camera and Vision Systems Design
    1. 7.1 Introduction to Vision System Design
    2. 7.2 Definitions
    3. 7.3 Smart Cameras
    4. 7.4 Vision Sensors
    5. 7.5 Embedded Vision Systems
    6. 7.6 Conclusion
    7. References
    8. Further Reading
  14. Chapter 8: Camera Computer Interfaces
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Camera Buses
    3. 8.3 Choosing a Camera Bus
    4. 8.4 Computer Buses
    5. 8.5 Choosing a Computer Bus
    6. 8.6 Driver Software
    7. 8.7 Features of a Machine Vision System
    8. 8.8 Summary
    9. References
  15. Chapter 9: Machine Vision Algorithms
    1. 9.1 Fundamental Data Structures
    2. 9.2 Image Enhancement
    3. 9.3 Geometric Transformations
    4. 9.4 Image Segmentation
    5. 9.5 Feature Extraction
    6. 9.6 Morphology
    7. 9.7 Edge Extraction
    8. 9.8 Segmentation and Fitting of Geometric Primitives
    9. 9.9 Camera Calibration
    10. 9.10 Stereo Reconstruction
    11. 9.11 Template Matching
    12. 9.12 Optical Character Recognition
    13. References
  16. Chapter 10: Machine Vision in Manufacturing
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Application Categories
    3. 10.3 System Categories
    4. 10.4 Integration and Interfaces
    5. 10.5 Mechanical Interfaces
    6. 10.6 Electrical Interfaces
    7. 10.7 Information Interfaces
    8. 10.8 Temporal Interfaces
    9. 10.9 Human–Machine Interfaces
    10. 10.10 3D Systems
    11. 10.11 Industrial Case Studies
    12. 10.12 Constraints and Conditions
    13. References
  17. Appendix
  18. Index
  19. End User License Agreement