13

The Human Eye and Ophthalmic Lenses

13.1  THE HUMAN EYE

The first serious studies were carried out by Helmholtz, as described in his book Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik. Eye studies continued in the late nineteenth century with the pioneering work by Gullstrand. A diagram of the human eye is presented in Figure 13.1, and its main optical constants are listed in Table 13.1. The most important optical components of the eye are as follows:

Cornea—This is the front transparent tissue in the eye. Its normal ideal shape is nearly spherical, with a dioptric power of approximately 43 diopters. Any deviation from its ideal shape produces refractive errors. If it takes a toroidal shape, with different curvatures along two mutually perpendicular ...

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