Using a typology encompassing psychological learning theories across four quadrants, we have compared and contrasted various strands in the literature in an effort to detect synergies as well as points of difference. Doing so has enabled us to explore how psychological learning theories have been used in the development of (some) theories connected with organizational learning. To the left side of the model, theories which are essentially individualistic in orientation are reviewed. We have examined behavioral learning theory as well as simple cognitive models, in combination with theories that explore how the individual interacts with his or her environment to learn, change, and grow. To the right side of the model, we have explored theories such as distributed cognitions and learning-in-practice that highlight the shared sense of being that arises from working closely with others and the inseparability of learners from the social system to which they belong. Across the horizontal axis, we have reviewed (connected) themes asserting, firstly, the amenability of learning to control and direction, and, secondly, the natural evolution of learning, which occurs as people engage with their environments.

There are differences within each set of quadrants, taking into account the broad parameters described above. For example, looking to the left of the vertical axis, in the first quadrant, the individual is essentially passive, at the behest of his or her environment. Through ...

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