1.1. Properties of Silicon

Silicon is an abundant element found in the Earth’s crust in various compounds. Semiconductor and MEMS applications use more than 20000 tons/year (2008) of high-purity silicon. Today most of the silicon used is either N- or P-type, doped with antimony, arsenic, phosphorus (N-type) or boron (P-type); the dopant concentration ranges between 1013 and 1020 dopant atoms/cm3 Si. Intrinsic (no intentional doping) or very slightly doped high resistivity silicon above 1 kΩcm is used in small amounts. Statistics pertaining to silicon can be found, for example, in the US Geological Survey 2006 Minerals Yearbook [1].

Quartz, or silicon dioxide, is the most common starting raw material for purified silicon for semiconductor and ...

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