16.4. Thickness of Thin Films

16.4.1. Reflectance Measurements and FTIR

Optical reflectance measurements are widely used for measuring metallic, semiconductor, and dielectric layers. In principle these measurements can provide a wealth of information and can be used to determine the following:

  • Layer thicknesses
  • Indices of refraction
  • Absorption coefficients
  • Surface roughness and damage
  • Porosity
  • Composition
  • Crystallinity
  • Wafer curvature

Measurements can be made with monochromatic light, or over a broad range of wavelengths, even spanning the entire spectrum from near ultraviolet to the infrared. A single angle or multiple angles of incidence can be used, ranging from normal (perpendicular to the surface) to grazing incidence (almost ...

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