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Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies by Teruaki Motooka, Ari Lehto, Markku Tilli, Veikko Lindroos

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26.4. Characteristics of ALD Processes and Films

26.4.1. Growth per Cycle in ALD Processes

ALD is a cyclic process, and the material deposition in ALD occurs in discrete steps. A schematic representation of the mass changes during ALD processing is shown in Figure 26.6. During the reaction of the first ALD reactant or the metal reactant (Step 1), the mass adsorbed typically increases, and during the following purge/evacuation (Step 2), the mass adsorbed stabilizes to a certain value. During the reaction of the second ALD reactant or the non-metal reactant (Step 3), the mass can either increase or decrease, depending on the mass difference of the ligands to be removed and the replacing surface species. During the following purge/evacuation (Step ...

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