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Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies by Teruaki Motooka, Ari Lehto, Markku Tilli, Veikko Lindroos

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Chapter Thirty Two. Anodic Bonding

32.1. Introduction

In its most used form, the anodic bonding process consists of joining silicon with borosilicate glass [1]. Ceramics can also be used instead of glass [2]. Bonding of glass and ceramics can also be done against metals [3], alloys and other semiconductors, provided the thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials are closely matched. There are metals, like Al, Ni, Cr, and Fe, which because of the thermal mismatch cannot be sealed to glasses in their bulk form, but can be bonded as thin films or foils [4].

The anodic bonding process, known also as “field assisted sealing” or “electrostatic bonding” was described for the first time by Wallis and Pomerantz in 1968 [1, 4]. Since then, it ...

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