images CHAPTER 5

Wireless Communication and Sensing in Multipath Environments Using Multiantenna Transceivers

Akbar M. Sayeed and Thiagarajan Sivanadyan

Wireless Communications Research Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

5.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

Multiantenna arrays have emerged as a promising technology for increasing the spectral efficiency and reliability of wireless communication systems by augmenting the traditional signal space dimensions of time and frequency with the spatial dimension [1, 2]. The advantages of such multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems are intimately related to the phenomenon of multipath—signal propagation over multiple scattering paths—in wireless channels [3–5]. While traditionally considered a detrimental effect due to signal fading—wild fluctuations in received signal strength—multipath has emerged as a key source of diversity to not only combat the effects of fading for increased reliability but to also increase the information capacity of wireless links [1, 2]. In particular, MIMO systems exploit multipath to establish multiple parallel spatial channels that, in principle, can increase the link capacity in direct proportion to the number of antennas, without increasing the traditional resources of power or bandwidth [6–10]. The advantages of antenna arrays in ...

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