The inter-networking refresher

The open systems interconnection (OSI), model is built for the network based digital communication and keeps flexibility and modularity in mind. The OSI model is a seven-layered design, starting from the physical layer and ending at the application layer. A high-level diagram of the OSI layers can be viewed as follows:

The seven layers are responsible for a variety of different communication standards as:

  • At the physical layer, we are generally speaking about the cables, hubs, optical fibers, coaxial cables, and connectors, which are the actual physical carriers of data, and the data is represented in bits. ...

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