Imagine a quadrant of a circle is placed inside a square, as shown next, and we generate some random points inside the square. You can see that some of the points fall inside the circle while others are outside the circle:
We can write:
We know that the area of a circle is πr2 and the area of a square is a2:
Let's consider that the radius of a circle is one half and the square's side is 1, so we can ...