## Book description

Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples.

Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics so you can understand key points and actually use them. Learn to present data visually with charts and plots; discover the difference between taking the average with mean, median, and mode, and why it's important; learn how to calculate probability and expectation; and much more.

Head First Statistics is ideal for high school and college students taking statistics and satisfies the requirements for passing the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Exam. With this book, you'll:

• Study the full range of topics covered in first-year statistics
• Tackle tough statistical concepts using Head First's dynamic, visually rich format proven to stimulate learning and help you retain knowledge
• Explore real-world scenarios, ranging from casino gambling to prescription drug testing, to bring statistical principles to life
• Discover how to measure spread, calculate odds through probability, and understand the normal, binomial, geometric, and Poisson distributions
• Conduct sampling, use correlation and regression, do hypothesis testing, perform chi square analysis, and more

Before you know it, you'll not only have mastered statistics, you'll also see how they work in the real world. Head First Statistics will help you pass your statistics course, and give you a firm understanding of the subject so you can apply the knowledge throughout your life.

## Publisher resources

View/Submit Errata

1. Dedication
2. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
4. Praise for other Head First books
5. Author of Head First Statistics
6. How to use this Book: Intro
1. Who is this book for?
2. We know what you’re thinking
3. We know what your brain is thinking
5. Here’s what WE did
7. The technical review team
8. Acknowledgments
9. Safari® Books Online
7. 1. Visualizing Information: First Impressions
1. Statistics are everywhere
2. But why learn statistics?
3. A tale of two charts
4. Manic Mango needs some charts
5. The humble pie chart
6. Chart failure
7. Bar charts can allow for more accuracy
8. Vertical bar charts
9. Horizontal bar charts
10. It’s a matter of scale
11. Using frequency scales
12. Dealing with multiple sets of data
14. Categories vs. numbers
15. Dealing with grouped data
16. To make a histogram, start by finding bar widths
17. Manic Mango needs another chart
18. Make the area of histogram bars proportional to frequency
19. Step 1: Find the bar widths
20. Step 2: Find the bar heights
21. Step 3: Draw your chart—a histogram
22. Histograms can’t do everything
23. Introducing cumulative frequency
24. Drawing the cumulative frequency graph
25. Choosing the right chart
26. Manic Mango conquered the games market!
8. 2. Measuring Central Tendency: The Middle Way
1. Welcome to the Health Club
2. A common measure of average is the mean
3. Mean math
4. Dealing with unknowns
5. Back to the mean
6. Handling frequencies
7. Back to the Health Club
8. Everybody was Kung Fu fighting
9. Our data has outliers
10. The butler outliers did it
11. Watercooler conversation
12. Finding the median
14. The Little Ducklings swimming class
15. Frequency Magnets
16. Frequency Magnets
17. What went wrong with the mean and median?
18. Introducing the mode
19. Congratulations!
9. 3. Measuring Variability and Spread: Power Ranges
1. Wanted: one player
2. We need to compare player scores
3. Use the range to differentiate between data sets
4. The problem with outliers
5. We need to get away from outliers
6. Quartiles come to the rescue
7. The interquartile range excludes outliers
8. Quartile anatomy
9. We’re not just limited to quartiles
10. So what are percentiles?
11. Box and whisker plots let you visualize ranges
12. Variability is more than just spread
13. Calculating average distances
14. We can calculate variation with the variance...
15. ...but standard deviation is a more intuitive measure
16. A quicker calculation for variance
17. What if we need a baseline for comparison?
18. Use standard scores to compare values across data sets
19. Interpreting standard scores
20. Statsville All Stars win the league!
10. 4. Calculating Probabilities: Taking Chances
11. 5. Using Discrete Probability Distributions: Manage Your Expectations
1. Back at Fat Dan’s Casino
2. We can compose a probability distribution for the slot machine
3. Expectation gives you a prediction of the results...
4. ... and variance tells you about the spread of the results
5. Variances and probability distributions
6. Let’s calculate the slot machine’s variance
7. Fat Dan changed his prices
8. There’s a linear relationship between E(X) and E(Y)
9. Slot machine transformations
10. General formulas for linear transforms
11. Every pull of the lever is an independent observation
12. Observation shortcuts
13. New slot machine on the block
14. Add E(X) and E(Y) to get E(X + Y)...
15. ... and subtract E(X) and E(Y) to get E(X – Y)
16. You can also add and subtract linear transformations
17. Jackpot!
12. 6. Permutations and Combinations: Making Arrangements
13. 7. Geometric, Binomial, and Poisson Distributions: Keeping Things Discrete
1. Meet Chad, the hapless snowboarder
2. We need to find Chad’s probability distribution
3. There’s a pattern to this probability distribution
4. The probability distribution can be represented algebraically
5. The pattern of expectations for the geometric distribution
6. Expectation is 1/p
7. Finding the variance for our distribution
8. You’ve mastered the geometric distribution
9. Should you play, or walk away?
10. Generalizing the probability for three questions
11. Let’s generalize the probability further
12. What’s the expectation and variance?
13. Binomial expectation and variance
14. The Statsville Cinema has a problem
15. Expectation and variance for the Poisson distribution
16. So what’s the probability distribution?
17. Combine Poisson variables
18. The Poisson in disguise
19. Anyone for popcorn?
14. 8. Using the Normal Distribution: Being Normal
15. 9. Using the Normal Distribution ii: Beyond Normal
16. 10. Using Statistical Sampling: Taking Samples
1. The Mighty Gumball taste test
2. They’re running out of gumballs
3. Test a gumball sample, not the whole gumball population
4. How sampling works
5. When sampling goes wrong
6. How to design a sample
8. Sometimes samples can be biased
9. Sources of bias
10. How to choose your sample
11. Simple random sampling
12. How to choose a simple random sample
13. There are other types of sampling
14. We can use stratified sampling...
15. ...or we can use cluster sampling...
16. ...or even systematic sampling
17. Mighty Gumball has a sample
17. 11. Estimating Populations and Samples: Making Predictions
1. So how long does flavor really last for?
2. Let’s start by estimating the population mean
3. Point estimators can approximate population parameters
4. Let’s estimate the population variance
5. We need a different point estimator than sample variance
6. Which formula’s which?
7. Mighty Gumball has done more sampling
8. It’s a question of proportion
10. So how does this relate to sampling?
11. The sampling distribution of proportions
12. So what’s the expectation of Ps?
13. And what’s the variance of Ps?
14. Find the distribution of Ps
15. Ps follows a normal distribution
16. How many gumballs?
17. We need probabilities for the sample mean
18. The sampling distribution of the mean
19. Find the expectation for X̄
20. What about the the variance of X̄?
21. So how is X̄ distributed?
22. If n is large, X̄ can still be approximated by the normal distribution
23. Using the central limit theorem
24. Sampling saves the day!
18. 12. Constructing Confidence Intervals: Guessing with Confidence
19. 13. Using Hypothesis Tests: Look At The Evidence
1. Statsville’s new miracle drug
2. So what’s the problem?
3. Resolving the conflict from 50,000 feet
4. The six steps for hypothesis testing
5. Step 1: Decide on the hypothesis
6. So what’s the alternative?
7. Step 2: Choose your test statistic
8. Step 3: Determine the critical region
9. To find the critical region, first decide on the significance level
10. Step 4: Find the p-value
11. We’ve found the p-value
12. Step 5: Is the sample result in the critical region?
13. Step 6: Make your decision
14. So what did we just do?
15. What if the sample size is larger?
16. Let’s conduct another hypothesis test
17. Step 1: Decide on the hypotheses
18. Step 2: Choose the test statistic
19. Use the normal to approximate the binomial in our test statistic
20. Step 3: Find the critical region
21. SnoreCull failed the test
22. Mistakes can happen
24. What about Type II errors?
25. Finding errors for SnoreCull
26. We need to find the range of values
27. Find P(Type II error)
28. Introducing power
29. The doctor’s happy
20. 14. The χ2 Distribution: There&#8217;s Something Going On... Distribution: There’s Something Going On...
1. There may be trouble ahead at Fat Dan’s Casino
3. The χ2 test assesses difference
4. So what does the test statistic represent?
5. Two main uses of the χ2 distribution
6. v represents degrees of freedom
7. What’s the significance?
8. Hypothesis testing with χ2
9. You’ve solved the slot machine mystery
10. Fat Dan has another problem
11. the χ2 distribution can test for independence
12. You can find the expected frequencies using probability
13. So what are the frequencies?
14. We still need to calculate degrees of freedom
15. Generalizing the degrees of freedom
16. And the formula is...
17. You’ve saved the casino
21. 15. Correlation and Regression: What’s My Line?
1. Never trust the weather
2. Let’s analyze sunshine and attendance
3. Exploring types of data
4. Visualizing bivariate data
5. Scatter diagrams show you patterns
6. Correlation vs. causation
7. Predict values with a line of best fit
8. Your best guess is still a guess
9. We need to minimize the errors
10. Introducing the sum of squared errors
11. Find the equation for the line of best fit
12. Finding the slope for the line of best fit
13. Finding the slope for the line of best fit, part ii
14. We’ve found b, but what about a?
16. Let’s look at some correlations
17. The correlation coefficient measures how well the line fits the data
18. There’s a formula for calculating the correlation coefficient, r
19. Find r for the concert data
20. Find r for the concert data, continued
21. You’ve saved the day!
22. Leaving town...
23. It’s been great having you here in Statsville!
22. A. Leftovers: The Top Ten Things (we didn’t cover)
1. #1. Other ways of presenting data
2. #2. Distribution anatomy
3. #3. Experiments
5. #4. Least square regression alternate notation
6. #5. The coefficient of determination
7. #6. Non-linear relationships
8. #7. The confidence interval for the slope of a regression line
9. #8. Sampling distributions – the difference between two means
10. #9. Sampling distributions – the difference between two proportions
11. #10. E(X) and Var(X) for continuous probability distributions
12. Finding E(X)
13. Finding Var(X)
23. B. Statistics Tables: Looking Things Up
24. Index