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High Dynamic Range Video

Book Description

At the time of rapid technological progress and uptake of High Dynamic Range (HDR) video content in numerous sectors, this book provides an overview of the key supporting technologies, discusses the effectiveness of various techniques, reviews the initial standardization efforts and explores new research directions in all aspects involved in HDR video systems.

Topics addressed include content acquisition and production, tone mapping and inverse tone mapping operators, coding, quality of experience, and display technologies. This book also explores a number of applications using HDR video technologies in the automotive industry, medical imaging, spacecraft imaging, driving simulation and watermarking.

By covering general to advanced topics, along with a broad and deep analysis, this book is suitable for both the researcher new or familiar to the area.

With this book the reader will:

  • Gain a broad understanding of all the elements in the HDR video processing chain
  • Learn the most recent results of ongoing research
  • Understand the challenges and perspectives for HDR video technologies
  • Covers a broad range of topics encompassing the whole processing chain in HDR video systems, from acquisition to display
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of this fast emerging topic
  • Presents upcoming applications taking advantages of HDR

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributors
  6. Editor Biographies
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1: The Fundamental Basis of HDR: Comparametric Equations
    1. Abstract
    2. Acknowledgments
    3. 1.1 Introduction to High Dynamic Range Imaging
    4. 1.2 Historical Motivation for HDR Imaging
    5. 1.3 Theory of HDR Imaging
    6. 1.4 Comparametric Image Processing: Comparing Differently Exposed Images of the Same Subject Matter
    7. 1.5 Practical Implementations
    8. 1.6 Tone Mapping in HDR Systems
    9. 1.7 Analytical Solution of Comparametric Equations
    10. 1.8 Compositing as Bayesian Joint Estimation
    11. 1.9 Efficient Implementation of HDR Reconstruction via CCRF Compression
  10. Part I: Content Acquisition and Production
    1. Chapter 2: Unified Reconstruction of Raw HDR Video Data
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Optical Design for HDR Video Capture
      4. 2.3 Image Formation Model
      5. 2.4 HDR Reconstruction
      6. 2.5 Example Applications
      7. 2.6 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 3: Stack-Based Algorithms for HDR Capture and Reconstruction
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 3.1 Introduction
      4. 3.2 Metering for HDR Imaging
      5. 3.3 From LDR to HDR
      6. 3.4 Handling Artifacts From Motion During HDR Reconstruction
      7. 3.5 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 4: Multiview HDR Video Sequence Generation
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 HDR and Stereo HDR Video Acquisition
      4. 4.3 Free-Path Single Camera
      5. 4.4 Multiscopic HDR Video
      6. 4.5 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 5: HDR, Cinematography, and Stereoscopy
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 5.1 Introduction
      4. 5.2 Experiments With the HDR Technique
      5. 5.3 Postproduction
      6. 5.4 HDR: Enhanced Artistic Palette Available for Directors of Photography and Directors
  11. Part II: Processing
    1. Chapter 6: Video Tone Mapping
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Temporal Artifacts
      3. 6.2 Video TMOs
      4. 6.3 Temporal Artifacts Caused by Video TMOs
      5. 6.4 Recent Video TMOs
      6. 6.5 Summary
    2. Chapter 7: Evaluation of Tone Mapping Operators for HDR Video
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Subjective Quality Assessment Method
      4. 7.3 Survey of TMO Evaluation Studies
      5. 7.4 Evaluation Studies for Video TMOs
      6. 7.5 Video TMO Evaluation Study I
      7. 7.6 Video TMO Evaluation Study II
      8. 7.7 Summary
    3. Chapter 8: Using Simulated Visual Illusions and Perceptual Anomalies to Convey Dynamic Range
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Three-Dimensional Unsharp Masking
      4. 8.3 Temporal Glare
      5. 8.4 Afterimages
      6. 8.5 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 9: Color Management in HDR Imaging
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Background
      4. 9.3 Color Spaces for HDR and Color Workflows
      5. 9.4 Color Correction
      6. 9.5 Recovery of Clipped and Overexposed Regions
      7. 9.6 Color Appearance Modeling for HDR
      8. 9.7 Conclusions
  12. Part III: Representation and Coding
    1. Chapter 10: High Dynamic Range Video Compression
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 HDR Image Storage Formats and Compression
      4. 10.3 HDR Video Compression
      5. 10.4 Summary
    2. Chapter 11: High Dynamic Range and Wide Color Gamut Video Standardization — Status and Perspectives
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 HDR and WCG Video Workflows and Related Standardization Activities
      4. 11.3 HDR and WCG in Already Existing Standards
      5. 11.4 Other Technical Solutions
      6. 11.5 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 12: High Dynamic Range Imaging with JPEG XT
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 The JPEG XT Standard
      3. 12.2 Problem Definition
      4. 12.3 The History of JPEG XT
      5. 12.4 Coding Technology
      6. 12.5 Hardware Implementation
      7. 12.6 Coding Performance
      8. 12.7 Conclusions
  13. Part IV: Display
    1. Chapter 13: HDR Display Characterization and Modeling
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 HDR Image Display With LED Backlight
      4. 13.3 Optimizing Local Dimming of LED Backlight for Image Display
      5. 13.4 LED-Backlit 3D Video Displays
      6. 13.5 Modeling and Evaluation of Display Quality
      7. 13.6 Concluding Remarks
    2. Chapter 14: Dual Modulation for LED-Backlit HDR Displays
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Dual Modulation for Backlight Dimming
      4. 14.3 Proposed Method for Dual Modulation
      5. 14.4 Assessing the Performance of a Dual Modulation Algorithm
      6. 14.5 Some Practical Lessons for HDR Content Rendering
      7. 14.6 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives
  14. Part V: Perception and Quality of Experience
    1. Chapter 15: Perceptual Design for High Dynamic Range Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Luminance and Contrast Perception of the HVS
      4. 15.3 Quantization and Tone Curve Reproduction
      5. 15.4 Perception of Reflectances, Diffuse White, and Highlights
      6. 15.5 Adding Color — Color Gamuts and Color Volumes
      7. 15.6 Summary
    2. Chapter 16: Quality of Experience and HDR: Concepts and How to Measure It
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Dimensions in HDR QoE
      4. 16.3 Measuring HDR QoE: A Few Considerations
      5. 16.4 Impact of Tone Mapping Operators on QoE Dimensions
      6. 16.5 Case Study: Quality Assessment of Dynamic Range Expansion of Video Sequences
      7. 16.6 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives
    3. Chapter 17: HDR Image and Video Quality Prediction
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Approaches for Assessing HDR Fidelity
      4. 17.3 From Spatial Frequency Errors to Global Quality Measure of HDR Content: Improvement of the HVS-Based Model
      5. 17.4 Adapted LDR Metrics for Measuring HDR Image Quality in the Context of Compression
      6. 17.5 Tone Mapping and Dynamic Range-Independent Metrics
      7. 17.6 Extensions to Video
      8. 17.7 Concluding Remarks
  15. Part VI: Applications
    1. Chapter 18: HDR Imaging in Automotive Applications
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 18.1 History and Motivation for High Dynamic Range Sensors and Cameras
      4. 18.2 Requirements for Automotive Camera Sensors
      5. 18.3 HDR Implementations
      6. 18.4 HDR Video-Based Driver Assistance Applications
    2. Chapter 19: An Application of HDR in Medical Imaging
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 19.1 Introduction
      4. 19.2 Requirements of HDR Visualization in the Medical Field
      5. 19.3 Evaluation of Medical HDR Displays
      6. 19.4 The Dual-Layer Approach
      7. 19.5 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 20: High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 20.1 Introduction
      4. 20.2 Background
      5. 20.3 Film Baseline
      6. 20.4 HDR Imaging of Spacecraft Field Experiments
      7. 20.5 Calibrated Measurement of Imager Dynamic Range
      8. 20.6 HDR Workflow and Display Device Luminance
      9. 20.7 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 21: The Dynamic Range of Driving Simulation
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 No Need for HDR Video in Driving Simulations?
      4. 21.3 Visual Factors Which Impact Driving Behavior
      5. 21.4 HDR Rendering
      6. 21.5 Photometric Control of CG Images in Driving Simulations
      7. 21.6 Conclusion
    5. Chapter 22: HDR Image Watermarking
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 A Brief Introduction to Digital Watermarking
      3. 22.2 Digital Watermarking for HDR Images
      4. 22.3 Concluding Remarks
  16. Index