The Human Resource Management (HRM) literature suggests that HRM practices in an organization should be vertically aligned with its strategic choices, supporting the strategy of the organization, and horizontally aligned with other operational processes, facilitating the operations of the organization. Many have also argued that tight strategic alignment can damage the capacity of the HRM function to fulfill its historical role in balancing employee interests with managerial interests, and that each organization, and each HRM function, will be faced with dilemmas in this manner that need to be resolved. Project-oriented organizations make the strategic choice to adopt temporary organizations, such as projects and programs, ...

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