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Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs

Book Description

Hydraulic Fracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs: Theories, Operations, and Economic Analysis introduces the basic characteristics and theories surrounding hydraulic fracturing and the main process of fracturing in shale, including the main workflow, the details in case analysis, and the fundamental differences between theory, study, and practical operation. The book takes the complex nature of the hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs and applies a practical approach that can be useds as a workflow for designing fracture treatments in various shale basins across the world.

Providing the audience with theories, best practices, operation and execution, and economic analysis of hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs, this reference guides the engineer and manager through broad topics including an introduction to unconventional reservoirs, advanced shale reservoir characterization, and shale gas in place calculation as well as expanding to basic theories of hydraulic fracturing and advanced topics in shale reservoir stimulation.

Rounding out with coverage on the environmental aspects and practice problems on design and economic analysis, the book delivers the critical link needed between academia and industry for all aspects of hydraulic fracturing operations.

  • Presents basic characteristics of unconventional reservoirs and introductory theories and practices on hydraulic fracturing, including post-fracturing analysis
  • Includes an explanation of company assets and financial responsibility, with coverage on economic evaluation and how to predict decline curves
  • Provides tactics on how to strengthen real-world skills with the inclusion of practice examples at the end of the book

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Figures
  6. List of Tables
  7. List of Equations
  8. Biography
  9. Preface
  10. Chapter One. Introduction to Unconventional Reservoirs
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Different Types of Natural Gas
    4. Natural Gas Transport
    5. Unconventional Reservoirs
  11. Chapter Two. Advanced Shale Reservoir Characterization
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Pore-Size Distribution Measurement of Shale
    4. Shale Sorption Measurement Techniques
    5. Shale Porosity Measurements
    6. Pore Compressibility Measurements of Shale
    7. Shale Permeability Measurement Techniques
  12. Chapter Three. Shale Initial Gas-in-Place Calculation
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Total Gas-in-Place Calculation
    4. Density of Adsorbed Gas
    5. Recovery Factor
  13. Chapter Four. Multiscale Fluid Flow and Transport in Organic-Rich Shale
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Multicontinuum Modeling of Shale Reservoirs
    4. Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure
    5. Wettability Effects on Shale Recovery
  14. Chapter Five. Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Slick Water Fluid System
    4. Cross-Linked Gel Fluid System
    5. Hybrid Fluid System
    6. Foam Fracturing
    7. Foam Quality
    8. Foam Stability
    9. Tortuosity
    10. Typical Slick Water Frac Steps
    11. Acidization Stage
    12. Pad Stage
    13. Proppant Stage
    14. Flush Stage
    15. Frac Fluid Selection Summary
  15. Chapter Six. Proppant Characteristics and Application Design
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Sand
    4. Precured Resin-Coated Sand
    5. Curable Resin-Coated Sand
    6. Intermediate-Strength Ceramic Proppant
    7. Lightweight Ceramic Proppant
    8. High-Strength Proppant
    9. Proppant Size
    10. Proppant Characteristics
    11. Proppant Particle-Size Distributions
    12. Proppant Transport and Distribution in Hydraulic Fracture
    13. Fracture Conductivity
    14. Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity
    15. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Conductivity Test
    16. Non-Darcy Flow
    17. Multiphase Flow
    18. Reduced Proppant Concentration
    19. Gel Damage
    20. Cyclic Stress
    21. Fines Migration
    22. Time Degradation
    23. Finite vs Infinite Conductivity
  16. Chapter Seven. Unconventional Reservoir Development Footprints
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Casing Selection
    4. Conductor Casing
    5. Surface Casing
    6. Intermediate Casing
    7. Production Casing
    8. Hydraulic Fracturing and Aquifer Interaction
    9. Hydraulic Fracturing and Fault Reactivation
    10. Hydraulic Fracturing and Low-Magnitude Earthquakes
  17. Chapter Eight. Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Selection and Design
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Friction Reducer
    4. FR Flow Loop Test
    5. Pipe Friction Pressure
    6. Reynolds Number
    7. Relative Roughness of Pipe
    8. FR Breaker
    9. Biocide
    10. Scale Inhibitor
    11. Linear Gel
    12. Gel Breaker
    13. Buffer
    14. Cross-Linker
    15. Surfactant
    16. Iron Control
  18. Chapter Nine. Fracture Pressure Analysis and Perforation Design
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Pressure (psi)
    4. Hydrostatic Pressure (psi)
    5. Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient (psi/ft)
    6. Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure (ISIP, psi)
    7. Fracture Gradient (FG, psi/ft)
    8. Bottom-Hole Treating Pressure (psi)
    9. Total Friction Pressure (psi)
    10. Pipe Friction Pressure (psi)
    11. Perforation Friction Pressure (psi)
    12. Open Perforations
    13. Perforation Efficiency
    14. Perforation Design
    15. Numbers of Holes (perfs) and Limited Entry Technique
    16. Perforation Diameter and Penetration
    17. Perforation Erosion
    18. Near-Wellbore Friction Pressure (NWBFP)
    19. Fracture Extension Pressure
    20. Closure Pressure
    21. Net Pressure
    22. Surface-Treating Pressure (STP, psi)
  19. Chapter Ten. Fracture Treatment Design
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Absolute Volume Factor (AVF, gal/lbs)
    4. Dirty (Slurry) Versus Clean Frac Fluid
    5. Slurry (Dirty) Density (ppg)
    6. Stage Fluid Clean Volume (BBLs)
    7. Stage Fluid Slurry (Dirty) Volume (BBLs)
    8. Stage Proppant (lbs)
    9. Sand per Foot (lb/ft)
    10. Water per Foot
    11. Sand-to-Water Ratio (SWR, lb/gal)
    12. Slick Water Frac Schedule
    13. Foam Frac Schedule and Calculations
    14. Foam Volume
    15. Nitrogen Volume
    16. Blender Sand Concentration
    17. Slurry Factor (SF)
    18. Clean Rate (No Proppant)
    19. Clean Rate (with Proppant)
    20. Slurry Rate (with Proppant)
    21. Nitrogen Rate (With and Without Proppant)
  20. Chapter Eleven. Horizontal Well Multistage Completion Techniques
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Conventional Plug and Perf
    4. Composite Bridge (Frac) Plug
    5. Sliding Sleeve
    6. Sliding Sleeve Advantages
    7. Sliding Sleeve Disadvantages
    8. Frac Stage Spacing (Plug-to-Plug Spacing)
    9. Shorter Stage Length (SSL)
    10. Cluster Spacing
    11. Refrac Overview
  21. Chapter Twelve. Completions and Flowback Design Evaluation in Relation to Production
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Landing Zone
    4. Stage Spacing
    5. Cluster Spacing
    6. Number of Perforations, Entry-Hole Diameter (EHD), and Perforation Phasing
    7. Sand and Water per Foot
    8. Proppant Size and Type
    9. Bounded Versus Unbounded (Inner vs. Outer)
    10. Up Dip Versus Down Dip
    11. Well Spacing
    12. Water Quality
    13. Flowback Design
    14. Flowback Equipment
    15. Flowback Equipment Spacing Guidelines
    16. Tubing Analysis
  22. Chapter Thirteen. Rock Mechanical Properties and In Situ Stresses
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Young’s Modulus (psi)
    4. Poisson’s Ratio (ν)
    5. Fracture Toughness ()
    6. Brittleness and Fracability Ratios
    7. Vertical, Minimum Horizontal, and Maximum Horizontal Stresses
    8. Vertical Stress
    9. Minimum Horizontal Stress
    10. Biot’s Constant (Poroelastic Constant)
    11. Maximum Horizontal Stress
    12. Various Stress States
    13. Fracture Orientation
    14. Transverse Fractures
    15. Longitudinal Fractures
  23. Chapter Fourteen. Diagnostic Fracture Injection Test
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Typical DFIT Procedure
    4. DFIT Data Recording and Reporting
    5. Before-Closure Analysis
    6. After-Closure Analysis (ACA)
  24. Chapter Fifteen. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing Propagation
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Stratigraphic and Geological Structure Modeling
    4. Development of Hydraulic Fracturing Simulators
    5. Two-dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Models
    6. Fluid Flow in Hydraulic Fractures
    7. Solid Elastic Response
    8. Pseudo–Three-Dimensional (Pseudo-3D) Hydraulic Fracturing Models
    9. Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Models
    10. Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Interactions
    11. Hydraulic Fracture Stage Merging and Stress Shadow Effects
  25. Chapter Sixteen. Operations and Execution
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Water Sources
    4. Hydration Unit (“Hydro”)
    5. Blender
    6. Sand Master (Sand Mover, Sand King, or Sand Castle)
    7. T-belt
    8. Missile
    9. Frac Manifold (Isolation Manifold)
    10. Frac Van (Control Room)
    11. Overpressuring Safety Devices
    12. Water Coordination
    13. Sand Coordination
    14. Chemical Coordination
    15. Stage Treatment
    16. Tips for Flowback After Screening Out
    17. Frac Wellhead
  26. Chapter Seventeen. Decline Curve Analysis
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Decline Curve Analysis (DCA)
    4. Anatomy of Decline Curve Analysis
    5. Primary Types of Decline Curves
    6. Arps Decline Curve Equations for Estimating Future Volumes
  27. Chapter Eighteen. Economic Evaluation
    1. Abstract
    2. Introduction
    3. Net Cash-Flow Model (NCF)
    4. Royalty
    5. Working Interest (WI)
    6. Net Revenue Interest (NRI)
    7. British Thermal Unit (BTU) Content
    8. Shrinkage Factor
    9. Operating Expense (Opex)
    10. Total Opex per Month
    11. Severance Tax
    12. Ad Valorem Tax
    13. Net Opex
    14. Revenue
    15. NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange)
    16. Henry Hub and Basis Price
    17. Cushing Hub and West Texas Intermediate (WTI)
    18. Mont Belvieu and Oil Price Information Services (OPIS)
    19. Capital Expenditure Cost (Capex)
    20. Opex, Capex, and Pricing Escalations
    21. Profit (Net Cash Flow)
    22. Before Federal Income Tax (BTAX) Monthly Undiscounted Net Cash Flow (NCF)
    23. Discount Rate
    24. Weight of Debt and Equity
    25. Cost of Debt
    26. Cost of Equity
    27. Capital Budgeting
    28. Net Present Value (NPV)
    29. BTAX and ATAX Monthly Discounted Net Cash Flow (NCF)
    30. Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
    31. NPV Versus IRR
    32. Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)
    33. Payback Method
    34. Profitability Index (PI)
    35. Tax Model (ATAX Calculation)
  28. Example Problems
  29. References
  30. Index