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IBM System Storage SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 Best Practices and Performance Guidelines

Book Description

Abstract

This IBM® Redbooks® publication captures several of the preferred practices and describes the performance gains that can be achieved by implementing the IBM System Storage® SAN Volume Controller and IBM Storwize® V7000 powered by IBM Spectrum™ Virtualize V7.8. These practices are based on field experience.

This book highlights configuration guidelines and preferred practices for the storage area network (SAN) topology, clustered system, back-end storage, storage pools and managed disks, volumes, remote copy services, and hosts. Then it provides performance guidelines for SAN Volume Controller, back-end storage, and applications. It explains how you can optimize disk performance with the IBM System Storage Easy Tier® function. It also provides preferred practices for monitoring, maintaining, and troubleshooting SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000.

This book is intended for experienced storage, SAN, and SAN Volume Controller administrators and technicians. Understanding his book requires advanced knowledge of the SAN Volume Controller and Storwize V7000 and SAN environments.

Table of Contents

  1. Front cover
  2. Notices
    1. Trademarks
  3. Preface
    1. Authors
    2. Now you can become a published author, too!
    3. Comments welcome
    4. Stay connected to IBM Redbooks
  4. Summary of changes
    1. April 2017, Fifth Edition
  5. Chapter 1. Storage area network topology
    1. 1.1 SAN topology general guidelines
      1. 1.1.1 SAN Performance and scalability
      2. 1.1.2 ISL Considerations
    2. 1.2 SAN topology-specific guidelines
      1. 1.2.1 Single switch SAN Volume Controller/Storwize SANs
      2. 1.2.2 Basic core-edge topology
      3. 1.2.3 Edge-core-edge topology
      4. 1.2.4 Full mesh topology
      5. 1.2.5 IBM Spectrum Virtualize and IBM Storwize as a SAN bridge
      6. 1.2.6 Device placement
    3. 1.3 SAN Volume controller ports
      1. 1.3.1 Slots and ports identification
      2. 1.3.2 Port naming and distribution
    4. 1.4 Zoning
      1. 1.4.1 Types of zoning
      2. 1.4.2 Prezoning tips and shortcuts
      3. 1.4.3 SAN Volume Controller internode communications zone
      4. 1.4.4 SAN Volume Controller/Storwize storage zones
      5. 1.4.5 SAN Volume Controller/Storwize host zones
      6. 1.4.6 Zoning with multiple SAN Volume Controller/Storwize clustered systems
      7. 1.4.7 Split storage subsystem configurations
    5. 1.5 Distance extension for remote copy services
      1. 1.5.1 Optical multiplexors
      2. 1.5.2 Long-distance SFPs or XFPs
      3. 1.5.3 Fibre Channel over IP
      4. 1.5.4 Native IP replication
    6. 1.6 Tape and disk traffic that share the SAN
    7. 1.7 Switch interoperability
  6. Chapter 2. Back-end storage
    1. 2.1 Round-robin path selection
    2. 2.2 Considerations for DS88xx series
      1. 2.2.1 Balancing workload across DS88xx series controllers
      2. 2.2.2 DS88xx series ranks to extent pools mapping
      3. 2.2.3 Determining the number of controller ports for DS88xx series
      4. 2.2.4 LUN masking
    3. 2.3 Considerations for IBM XIV Storage System
      1. 2.3.1 Connectivity considerations
      2. 2.3.2 Host options and settings for XIV systems
      3. 2.3.3 Managed disks considerations
      4. 2.3.4 Additional considerations
    4. 2.4 Considerations for IBM Storwize V7000/V5000/V3700
      1. 2.4.1 Cabling and zoning
      2. 2.4.2 Defining internal storage
    5. 2.5 Considerations for IBM FlashSystem 900
      1. 2.5.1 Physical FC port connection and zoning
      2. 2.5.2 Storage capacity and Arrays
      3. 2.5.3 Extent size
      4. 2.5.4 Storage pools
      5. 2.5.5 Volumes
    6. 2.6 Considerations for third-party storage with EMC VMAX and Hitachi Data Systems
  7. Chapter 3. Storage pools and managed disks
    1. 3.1 Availability considerations for storage pools
    2. 3.2 Selecting storage subsystems
    3. 3.3 Selecting the storage pool
      1. 3.3.1 Capacity planning consideration
      2. 3.3.2 Selecting the number of arrays per storage pool
      3. 3.3.3 Selecting LUN attributes
      4. 3.3.4 Considerations for Storwize family systems
      5. 3.3.5 Considerations for the IBM XIV Storage System
      6. 3.3.6 IBM FlashSystem A9000/A9000R considerations
      7. 3.3.7 Considerations for the DS88XX family
    4. 3.4 Quorum disk considerations
      1. 3.4.1 IP Quorum
      2. 3.4.2 IP Quorum requirements
    5. 3.5 Volume Consideration
    6. 3.6 Tiered storage
    7. 3.7 Adding MDisks to existing storage pools
      1. 3.7.1 Checking access to new MDisks
      2. 3.7.2 Persistent reserve
      3. 3.7.3 Renaming MDisks
    8. 3.8 Rebalancing extents across a storage pool
    9. 3.9 Removing MDisks from existing storage pools
      1. 3.9.1 Migrating extents from the MDisk to be deleted
      2. 3.9.2 Verifying the identity of an MDisk before removal
      3. 3.9.3 Correlating the back-end volume with the MDisk
    10. 3.10 Remapping managed MDisks
    11. 3.11 Controlling extent allocation order for volume creation
    12. 3.12 Considerations when using Encryption
      1. 3.12.1 Encryption at rest with USB Key
      2. 3.12.2 Encryption at rest with Key Server
      3. 3.12.3 Encryption on external storage
  8. Chapter 4. Volumes
    1. 4.1 Overview of volumes
      1. 4.1.1 Striping compared to sequential type
      2. 4.1.2 Thin-provisioned volumes
      3. 4.1.3 Space allocation
      4. 4.1.4 Compressed volumes
      5. 4.1.5 Thin-provisioned volume
      6. 4.1.6 Limits on virtual capacity of Thin-provisioned volumes
    2. 4.2 Creating volumes
      1. 4.2.1 Changing the preferred node within an I/O group or cross I/O group
    3. 4.3 Volume migration
      1. 4.3.1 Image-type to striped-type migration
      2. 4.3.2 Migrating to image-type volume
      3. 4.3.3 Migrating with volume mirroring
    4. 4.4 VMware Virtual Volumes
    5. 4.5 Preferred paths to a volume
      1. 4.5.1 Governing of volumes
    6. 4.6 Cache mode and cache-disabled volumes
      1. 4.6.1 Underlying controller remote copy with IBM Spectrum Virtualize and Storwize cache-disabled volumes
      2. 4.6.2 Using underlying controller FlashCopy with IBM Spectrum Virtualize and Storwize cache disabled volumes
      3. 4.6.3 Changing the cache mode of a volume
    7. 4.7 Using IBM Spectrum Virtualize or Storwize with FlashSystem
    8. 4.8 FlashCopy services
      1. 4.8.1 FlashCopy rules summary
      2. 4.8.2 IBM Spectrum Protect Snapshot
      3. 4.8.3 IBM System Storage Support for Microsoft Volume Shadow Copy Service
    9. 4.9 Configuration Backup
  9. Chapter 5. Copy Services
    1. 5.1 Introduction to copy services
      1. 5.1.1 FlashCopy
      2. 5.1.2 Metro Mirror and Global Mirror
      3. 5.1.3 Global Mirror with Change Volumes
      4. 5.1.4 Volume Mirroring function
    2. 5.2 FlashCopy
      1. 5.2.1 FlashCopy use cases
      2. 5.2.2 FlashCopy capabilities overview
      3. 5.2.3 FlashCopy functional overview
      4. 5.2.4 FlashCopy planning considerations
    3. 5.3 Remote Copy services
      1. 5.3.1 Remote copy functional overview
      2. 5.3.2 Remote copy network planning
      3. 5.3.3 Remote copy services planning
      4. 5.3.4 Remote copy use cases
      5. 5.3.5 1920 error
    4. 5.4 Native IP replication
      1. 5.4.1 Native IP replication technology
      2. 5.4.2 IP partnership limitations
      3. 5.4.3 VLAN support
      4. 5.4.4 IP Compression
      5. 5.4.5 Remote copy groups
      6. 5.4.6 Supported configurations
      7. 5.4.7 Native IP replication performance consideration
    5. 5.5 Volume Mirroring
      1. 5.5.1 Read and write operations
      2. 5.5.2 Volume mirroring use cases
      3. 5.5.3 Mirrored volume components
      4. 5.5.4 Performance considerations of Volume Mirroring
      5. 5.5.5 Bitmap space for out-of-sync volume copies
      6. 5.5.6 Synchronization status of volume copies
  10. Chapter 6. Hosts
    1. 6.1 Configuration guidelines
      1. 6.1.1 Host levels and host object name
      2. 6.1.2 Host cluster
      3. 6.1.3 The number of paths
      4. 6.1.4 Host ports
      5. 6.1.5 Port masking
      6. 6.1.6 Host to I/O group mapping
      7. 6.1.7 Volume size as opposed to quantity
      8. 6.1.8 Host volume mapping
      9. 6.1.9 Server adapter layout
    2. 6.2 N-Port ID Virtualization
    3. 6.3 Host pathing
      1. 6.3.1 Multipathing Software
      2. 6.3.2 Preferred path algorithm
      3. 6.3.3 Path selection
      4. 6.3.4 Path management
      5. 6.3.5 Non-disruptive volume migration between I/O groups
    4. 6.4 I/O queues
      1. 6.4.1 Queue depths
    5. 6.5 Host clustering and reserves
      1. 6.5.1 Clearing reserves
      2. 6.5.2 IBM Spectrum Virtualize MDisk reserves
    6. 6.6 AIX hosts
      1. 6.6.1 HBA parameters for performance tuning
      2. 6.6.2 Configuring for fast fail and dynamic tracking
      3. 6.6.3 SDDPCM
    7. 6.7 Virtual I/O Server
      1. 6.7.1 Methods to identify a disk for use as a virtual SCSI disk
      2. 6.7.2 UDID method for MPIO
    8. 6.8 Windows hosts
      1. 6.8.1 Clustering and reserves
      2. 6.8.2 Tunable parameters
      3. 6.8.3 Guidelines for disk alignment using Microsoft Windows with IBM Spectrum Virtualize volumes
    9. 6.9 Linux hosts
      1. 6.9.1 Tunable parameters
    10. 6.10 Solaris hosts
      1. 6.10.1 Solaris MPxIO
      2. 6.10.2 Symantec Veritas Volume Manager
      3. 6.10.3 DMP multipathing
      4. 6.10.4 Troubleshooting configuration issues
    11. 6.11 VMware server
      1. 6.11.1 Multipathing solutions supported
      2. 6.11.2 Multipathing configuration maximums
    12. 6.12 Monitoring
      1. 6.12.1 Load measurement and stress tools
  11. Chapter 7. IBM Easy Tier function
    1. 7.1 Easy Tier
      1. 7.1.1 Easy Tier concepts
      2. 7.1.2 Four tiers Easy Tier and Read Intensive flash drive
      3. 7.1.3 SSD arrays and Flash MDisks
      4. 7.1.4 Disk tiers
      5. 7.1.5 Easy Tier process
      6. 7.1.6 Easy Tier operating modes
    2. 7.2 Easy Tier implementation considerations
      1. 7.2.1 Implementation rules
      2. 7.2.2 Limitations
      3. 7.2.3 Easy Tier settings
    3. 7.3 Monitoring tools
      1. 7.3.1 Offloading statistics
      2. 7.3.2 Interpreting the STAT tool output
      3. 7.3.3 IBM STAT Charting Utility
  12. Chapter 8. Monitoring
    1. 8.1 Generic monitoring
      1. 8.1.1 Monitoring with GUI
      2. 8.1.2 Monitoring using quotas and alert
    2. 8.2 Performance Monitoring
      1. 8.2.1 Performance monitoring with the GUI
      2. 8.2.2 Performance monitoring with IBM Spectrum Control
      3. 8.2.3 Important metrics for debugging
      4. 8.2.4 Performance support package
    3. 8.3 Metro and Global Mirror monitoring with IBM Copy Services Manager and scripts
      1. 8.3.1 Monitoring MM and GM with scripts
    4. 8.4 Monitoring Tier1 SSD
  13. Chapter 9. Maintenance
    1. 9.1 Documenting IBM Spectrum Virtualize and SAN environment
      1. 9.1.1 Naming conventions
      2. 9.1.2 SAN fabrics documentation
      3. 9.1.3 IBM Spectrum Virtualize documentation
      4. 9.1.4 Storage documentation
      5. 9.1.5 Technical Support information
      6. 9.1.6 Tracking incident and change tickets
      7. 9.1.7 Automated support data collection
      8. 9.1.8 Subscribing to IBM Spectrum Virtualize support
    2. 9.2 Storage management users
    3. 9.3 Standard operating procedures
      1. 9.3.1 Allocating and deallocating volumes to hosts
      2. 9.3.2 Adding and removing hosts
    4. 9.4 IBM Spectrum Virtualize code update
      1. 9.4.1 Current and target IBM Spectrum Virtualize code level
      2. 9.4.2 IBM Spectrum Virtualize Upgrade Test Utility
      3. 9.4.3 IBM Spectrum Virtualize hardware considerations
      4. 9.4.4 Attached hosts preparation
      5. 9.4.5 Storage controllers preparation
      6. 9.4.6 SAN fabrics preparation
      7. 9.4.7 SAN components update sequence
      8. 9.4.8 IBM Spectrum Virtualize participating in Metro Mirror or Global Mirror
      9. 9.4.9 IBM Spectrum Virtualize update
      10. 9.4.10 IBM Spectrum Virtualize disk drive update
    5. 9.5 SAN modifications
      1. 9.5.1 Cross-referencing HBA WWPNs
      2. 9.5.2 Cross-referencing LUN IDs
      3. 9.5.3 HBA replacement
    6. 9.6 Hardware upgrades for IBM Spectrum Virtualize
      1. 9.6.1 Adding IBM Spectrum Virtualize nodes to an existing cluster
      2. 9.6.2 Upgrading IBM Spectrum Virtualize nodes in an existing cluster
      3. 9.6.3 Moving to a new IBM Spectrum Virtualize cluster
      4. 9.6.4 Splitting a Spectrum Virtualize cluster
    7. 9.7 Adding expansion enclosures
    8. 9.8 IBM Spectrum Virtualize scripting
      1. 9.8.1 Connecting to IBM Spectrum Virtualize using predefined PuTTY
      2. 9.8.2 Run commands in the IBM Spectrum Virtualize shell
      3. 9.8.3 Scripting toolkit
  14. Chapter 10. Troubleshooting and diagnostics
    1. 10.1 Common issues
      1. 10.1.1 Host problems
      2. 10.1.2 IBM Spectrum Virtualize events
      3. 10.1.3 SAN events
      4. 10.1.4 Storage subsystem issues
      5. 10.1.5 Port masking issues
    2. 10.2 Collecting data and isolating the problem
      1. 10.2.1 Data collection
    3. 10.3 Recovering from problems
      1. 10.3.1 Solving host problems
      2. 10.3.2 Solving IBM Spectrum Virtualize events
      3. 10.3.3 Solving SAN issues
      4. 10.3.4 Solving back-end storage issues
      5. 10.3.5 Replacing a failed disk
    4. 10.4 Health status during upgrade and known errors
  15. Chapter 11. IBM Real-time Compression
    1. 11.1 Evaluate compression savings using Comprestimator
    2. 11.2 Evaluate workload using Disk Magic
    3. 11.3 Verify available CPU resources
    4. 11.4 Configure a balanced system
    5. 11.5 Standard benchmark tools
    6. 11.6 Compression with FlashCopy
    7. 11.7 Compression with Easy Tier
    8. 11.8 Compression on the backend
    9. 11.9 Migrating generic volumes
    10. 11.10 Mixed volumes in the same MDisk group
  16. Appendix A. IBM i considerations
    1. IBM i Storage management
    2. Single level storage
    3. IBM i response time
    4. Planning for IBM i capacity
    5. Connecting SAN Volume Controller or Storwize to IBM i
    6. Setting of attributes in VIOS
    7. Disk drives for IBM i
    8. Defining LUNs for IBM i
    9. Data layout
    10. Fibre Channel adapters in IBM i and VIOS
    11. Zoning SAN switches
    12. IBM i Multipath
    13. Boot from SAN
    14. IBM i mirroring
    15. Copy services considerations
  17. Appendix B. Business continuity
    1. Business Continuity with Stretched Cluster
    2. Business Continuity with Enhanced Stretched Cluster
    3. Business Continuity with HyperSwap
    4. IP quorum configuration
  18. Related publications
    1. IBM Redbooks
    2. Other resources
    3. Referenced websites
    4. Help from IBM
  19. Back cover