2Fundamentals of Controlled Freezing for Ice‐templated Porous Materials

2.1 Introduction

Freezing has been known to be an effective way for food storage and cell cryopreservation [1, 2]. Because molecules, particles, or impurities can be rejected and condensed between ice crystals during freezing, it has also been used as a drying technique or a method for cleaning water [3]. Owing to the phase separation that results from freezing, the removal of ice crystals by sublimation or washing after gelation of a concentrated solute phase can produce ice‐templated porous materials or fibrous structures. This was probably first demonstrated by the formation of silica fibres after Mahler et al. froze a silica sol [4]. More examples have been reported on ...

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