3Applications of Freeze‐drying in Pharmaceuticals, Biopharmaceuticals, and Foods

3.1 Introduction

Freeze‐drying is usually an essential procedure when the ice‐templating technique is used for the preparation of porous and nanostructured materials. However, this technique has so far rarely been used to produce materials in industrial sectors. However, as a drying technique, the freeze‐drying method has been widely used in pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, and food industries. The objectives are usually to prepare well‐defined cakes with interconnected macroporous structures (to ensure easy and high‐standard reconstitution) and improved stability for storage and transport. Different types of excipients and/or control of pH have been investigated ...

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