Biofuel cells as sustainable power sources for implantable systems
S. Kerzenmacher, University of Freiburg Germany
This chapter provides readers from different disciplines with an overview of the technology and state-of-the-art in implantable biofuel cells as power source for implantable systems. It includes a short history of implantable biofuel cell research and introduces the different types of biofuel cells and the methods for the characterization of their performance. Important aspects of biofuel cell design for implantable applications are discussed, and state-of-the-art application examples are presented. The chapter closes with an overall conclusion and a perspective on future trends and challenges.