Chapter 1

1. For further information, see the Office of Management and Budget’s website on this subject:, accessed July 31, 2009.

2. “GPRA,” by Strategisy, LLC,, accessed August 3, 2009.

3. GPRA, Section (b).

4. The backlog exceeded a million cases if you count pending ratings, nonrating work, appeals, etc.

5. The federal government defines an adverse action as a removal, suspension of more than fourteen days, or a change to lower grade. A disciplinary action would refer to a suspension of fourteen days or less or a less punitive action such as an admonishment or reprimand.

6. See “Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission, Final Report to the President,” ...

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