Spectroscopies combined with reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for real-time in situ surface monitoring of thin film growth
P.G. Staib, Staib Instruments, Inc., USA
The electron beam used for reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) can also be used for various surface analysis techniques such as X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), total reflection angle X-ray spectroscopy (TRAXS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), cathodoluminescence (CL), and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). These techniques provide unique ways to perform in situ, during growth, monitoring of the surface atomic composition and chemical state. The basic electron–surface interactions and emission processes ...