V. Matias, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
R.H. Hammond, Stanford University, USA
In situ deposition vapor monitoring is essential for accurate control of film thickness and elemental composition during physical vapor deposition. This chapter describes current state-of-the-art vapor sensing technologies and compares their relative merits. We review the quartz crystal microbalance, vapor ionization and optical absorption measurement techniques.
deposition rate monitoring
vapor flux monitor
quartz crystal microbalance
electron-impact emission spectroscopy
quadrupole mass spectroscopy
atomic absorption spectroscopy
State-of-the-art thin-film deposition ...