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India Since Independence by V. Krishna Ananth

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XII

The Turbulent Years: 1980–84

Matters of national unity and integrity and the character of Centre-State relations dominated the country’s political affairs between 1980 and 1985 …. Rebellious groups threatened national integrity in the border states of Jammu and Kashmir and the Punjab. In Assam and more broadly in the Northeast, too, violence continued to be the rule rather than the exception…

—Granville Austin, Working a Democratic Constitution: The Indian Experience

When the last of the election results were out, late in the evening on 6 January 1980, there was no doubt that Indira’s assessment of Sanjay Gandhi was perfect. Those who had urged that she ‘liberate’ herself from her son, and had set out on their own course to form the Congress ...

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