13
2
The Role of Affect on Expanding
Indoor Spatial Knowledge
Samvith Srinivas
Stephen C. Hirtle
CONTENTS
2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 14
2.2 Learning New Spaces: Experimental Evidence .......................................15
2.2.1 Method ..............................................................................................15
2.2.1.1 Participant Recruitment ................................................... 16
2.2.1.2 Materials ............................................................................. 16
2.2.1.3 VR Environments .............................................................. 16
2.2.2 Design ................................................................................................19
2.2.3 Procedure .......................................................................................... 19
2.2.3.1 Practice Session .................................................................19
2.2.3.2 Training Phase ...................................................................20
2.2.3.3 Testing Phases ...................................................................20
2.2.3.4 Measures ............................................................................20
2.3 Results ...........................................................................................................21
2.3.1 Spatial Abilities and Learning .......................................................21
2.3.2 Learned Space ..................................................................................21
2.3.2.1 Time ....................................................................................21
2.3.2.2 Wrong Turns ......................................................................22
2.3.3 Extended Space ................................................................................25
2.3.3.1 Time ....................................................................................25
2.3.3.2 Wrong Turns ...................................................................... 26
2.3.3.3 Motivation .......................................................................... 29
2.4 Discussion ..................................................................................................... 29
Acknowledgments ................................................................................................ 32
References ...............................................................................................................32
14 Indoor Wayfinding and Navigation
Abstract: Indoor spaces are fundamentally different from outdoor spaces in
terms of the lack of vistas and restrictions on movement. Past literature on
how individuals build indoor spatial knowledge over time through extended
navigation routes is reviewed. New virtual reality studies on learning indoor
spaces using either simple routes or complex routes under either motivated
conditions or control conditions are presented. Participants in the motivated
group were encouraged to perform the task as quickly as possible, while the
control group was under no specic time constraints. Both groups were then
tested on their ability to follow schematized instructions to explore unfa-
miliar areas in the virtual reality environment. Performance of the various
spatial tasks across the motivated and control groups indicated that motiva-
tion improved performance in all but the most complex conditions. Results
of the research suggest to those who design built environments and future
waynding systems the importance of considering route complexity and
knowledge and affect of the traveler.
2.1 Introduction
Waynding is a fundamental task that humans and other species are involved
in on a constant basis (Golledge, 1999). The study of waynding behavior has a
rich history in the literature, including the comparison of navigation behavior
in familiar and unfamiliar environments (e.g., Streeter, Vitello, & Wonsiewicz,
1985) and the study of route directions in outdoor environments (e.g., Denis,
Pazzaglia, Cornoldi, & Bertolo, 1999; Fontaine & Denis, 1999). This general
line of research has examined a waynder’s acquisition of spatial knowledge
(Golledge, 1992), a waynder’s conceptualization and internal representations
of space (Mark, Freksa, Hirtle, Lloyd, & Tversky, 1999; Tversky, 1993), a way-
nder’s interaction with navigation aids (Krüger et al., 2004; Streeter et al.,
1985), and the importance of landmarks (Raubal & Winter, 2002; Sorrows &
Hirtle, 1999; Tom & Denis, 2003), among many other areas.
Researchers have also explored the waynding concepts related to envi-
ronments and route directions of varying complexity and granularity.
Klippel and colleagues (2009) explored methods to provide cognitively ergo-
nomic route directions that account for urban granularities. Tenbrink and
Winter (2009) explored the nature of route directions generated by humans
and systems to describe traveling through multimodal (walking and public
transport) environments. Schmid (2007, 2008) explored the formulation of
route descriptions that depend on an individual’s spatial knowledge. In this
work, Schmid automatically generated route directions that vary depending
on one’s level of spatial familiarity.

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