140 ◾ Industrial Applications of High-Performance Computing
areas. e KIST computer room was reformed as the System Engineering
Research Institute (SERI) in November 1984 and started in earnest to
carry out supercomputing operations in 1988. SERI played a big part in
establishing the validity of centralizing national computing and research
network resources in a national center by introducing and operating the
rst supercomputing system in South Korea in 1988.
is institute pulled the supercomputing application ability up to the
level of leading countries and contributed to open global research net-
works, helping South Korea become a leading country in the information
industry in the twenty-rst century. South Korea started its supercom-
puting operations with the introduction of the CRAY-2S system in 1988.
e CRAY-2S was actively used in various research elds and in many
industrial areas. CRAY-2S reached its maximum capacity as a result of
an increasing number of users and workloads, creating a strong desire
to introduce a new supercomputing system. As a result, in 1993, Korea’s
second supercomputer, the CRAY-YMP C90, was installed.
With the introduction of the CRAY-YMP C90 in 1994, the second
phase of the Korean supercomputer operation program began. e rst
phase of the program (from 1988 to 1993) entailed fostering the user
environment of the supercomputer and activating the use of the super-
computer, whereas the second phase focused on research and technology
development related to supercomputing and elevated supercomputing
applications to the level of leading countries. To maximize the use of the
supercomputer, user groups in terms of specic research domains were
organized. ese domain groups were encouraged to contribute by shar-
ing their supercomputing technology and research products.
e ratio of economic outcome to investment was reported to be
around 38:1 in the period of the Korean supercomputing program from
1998 to 2000. Korean government suciently invested in the supercom-
puting program, and the active support from Korean government made
the program larger and stronger. KISTI encouraged supercomputer users
to eciently utilize the supercomputer and increased internal researchers’
competence to extend the supercomputing basis. From 2001 to 2003, the
third Korean supercomputing system, IBM p690 and NEC SX series, was
successfully introduced. From 2009 to present, KISTI has operated the
fourth Korean supercomputing system, which consisted of a large SUN
Linux cluster and IBM p595 systems (Table 9.1).
KISTI could hereby provide supercomputing resources to Korean com-
putational scientists and industrial R&D people. With the promotion of